Although community-onset bloodstream infection (BSI) is recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, its epidemiology has not been well defined in non-selected populations. We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance in the Victoria area, Canada during 1998-2005 in order to determine the burden associated with community-onset BSI. A total of 2785 episodes were identified for an overall annual incidence of 101·2/100,000. Males and the very young and the elderly were at highest risk. Overall 1980 (71%) episodes resulted in hospital admission for a median length of stay of 8 days; the total days of acute hospitalization associated with community-onset BSI was 28 442 days or 1034 days/100,000 population per year. The in-hospital case-fatality rate was 13%. Community-onset BSI is associated with a major burden of illness. These data support ongoing and future preventative and research efforts aimed at reducing the major impact of these infections.