The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a prospective population-based cohort study including >100 000 pregnancies and following the children through childhood, using questionnaires and collecting biological samples. The aim of MoBa is to test specific aetiological hypotheses by estimating the association between exposure and disease, aiming at prevention. A biobank for exfoliated primary teeth collected from the children participating in MoBa has been established (MoBaTooth Biobank). Samples of tooth tissues from the primary dentition can give information about exposure to toxic and essential elements during fetal life and early infancy. Prenatally and postnatally formed tooth tissues permanently document early exposures unlike other biomarkers, as teeth form incrementally at a known rate. Results from tooth analyses will be coupled with corresponding information in the multiple questionnaires and data from analysis of other biological samples collected by MoBa. Invitations to donate one or more teeth are sent to all mothers/children in the period 2008-2016, when the child is 6.75 years old. By August 2011, 7400 participants had been recorded into the MoBaTooth database donating altogether 9798 teeth (1.3 teeth per child). The response rate was 24%, but there is a lag of >1 year in the response. Data from the tooth biobank can supply MoBa with important additional information on the uptake of trace elements during fetal life and early infancy. This information can illuminate possible causal factors of health and disease in the future.