[Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].
The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis.