Among with morbidity and affection, mortality is an objective indicator of HIV-infection epidemic process intensity. Dynamics of mortality of HIV-infected in Volga Federal District (VFD) in 2005 - 2010, distribution of deceased by disease stage, period of start and coverage by antiretroviral therapy were studied based on approved statistical forms and additional collected data, the leading causes of death were revealed, comparative analysis with population of HIV-infected in penitentiary system institutions was performed. All-cause mortality was established to have dynamics of growth in HIV-infected population in VFD in 2005 - 2010, at the same time HIV-infection mortality has a certain tendency of stabilization after 2007 with subsequent decline in 2010, that apparently is related to wide use of combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infection mortality among HIV-infected in penitentiary system of the district is significantly higher than mortality in the general population of HIV-infected in VFD. The leading cause of death in HIV-infection is tuberculosis.