The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in outcome after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with real-world data from 2 large centers in Canada.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an effective alternative to surgical valve replacement in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, but the impact of sex on outcomes remains unclear. The PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 1A trial demonstrated greater benefit of TAVR over surgery in women, but whether this was due to the poorer surgical outcome of women or better TAVR outcome, compared with men, is unknown.
Consecutive patients (n = 641) undergoing TAVR in Vancouver and Quebec City, Canada, were evaluated. Differences in all-cause mortality were examined with Kaplan-Meier estimates, adjusted logistic regression, and proportional hazards models.
Women comprised 51.3% of the cohort. Balloon-expandable valves were used in 97% of cases, with transapical approach in 51.7 % women and 38.1% men. Women had more major vascular complications (12.4% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.003) and borderline significantly more major/life-threatening bleeds (21.6% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.08). At baseline, women had higher aortic gradients and worse renal function but better ejection fractions. Men had more comorbidities: prior myocardial infarction, prior revascularization, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The adjusted odds ratio for 30-day all-cause mortality favored women, 0.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.80; p = 0.01), and this benefit persisted for 2 years, hazard ratio 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.88; p = 0.008).
Female sex is associated with better short- and long-term survival after TAVR. Added to the PARTNER 1A findings, these results suggest TAVR might be the preferred treatment option for elderly women with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis.