Effects of 12 weeks' treatment with a proton pump inhibitor on insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised double-blind prospective placebo-controlled study.
Recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor treatment may increase insulin secretion and improve glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. In a randomised double-blind prospective placebo-controlled 2 Ã? 2 factorial study, we examined the effect of esomeprazole on insulin secretion, HbA(1c) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes.
Forty-one patients with type 2 diabetes using dietary control or oral glucose-lowering treatment were randomised to receive add-on esomeprazole 40 mg (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks. Randomisation was carried out prior to inclusion on the basis of a computer-generated random-number list. The allocation sequence was concealed in sealed envelopes from the researcher enrolling and assessing participants. The study was undertaken at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. The primary outcome was change in AUC for insulin levels during a meal test. Secondary outcomes were the levels of HbA(1c) and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk, including lipids, coagulation factors, inflammation markers, markers of endothelial function and 24 h ambulatory BP measurements.
Forty-one participants were analysed. In the esomeprazole-treated group the AUC for insulin did not change (before vs after treatment: 28,049 Â± 17,659 vs 27,270 Â± 32,004 pmol/l Ã? min (p = 0.838). In the placebo group AUC for insulin decreased from 27,392 Â± 14,348 pmol/l Ã? min to 22,938 Â± 11,936 pmol/l Ã? min (p = 0.002). Esomeprazole treatment (n = 20) caused a ninefold increase in the AUC for gastrin. HbA(1c) increased from 7.0 Â± 0.6% (53 Â± 5 mmol/mol) to 7.3 Â± 0.8% (56 Â± 6 mmol/mol) in the esomeprazole-treated group and from 7.0 Â± 0.6% (53 Â± 5 mmol/mol) to 7.4 Â± 0.8% (57 Â± 6 mmol/mol) in the placebo group (n = 21) (p for difference in change >0.05). Except for BP, there were no differences between the groups in the markers of cardiovascular risk (p > 0.05). Monitoring of 24 h ambulatory BP showed a significant decrease in daytime systolic BP, daytime diastolic BP and 24 h diastolic BP in the placebo group (p