Recent research has revealed conspicuously few distinctions between young males and females who use cannabis. Such findings may reflect the general slackening of the sex-role pattern in the younger generations. Alternatively, they may reflect distinctive characteristics of the cannabis culture. Using data from a nationwide representative sample (n = 1,478) of young Norwegians (21-24 years old), this study explores whether "traditional" sex differences in respect to mental health and alcohol use are less conspicuous among users than among nonusers of cannabis. The respondents' sex-role-related values and preferences were also studied. Results indicate that the sex differences in mental health did not vary between users and nonusers of cannabis; however, female cannabis users were disproportionately young when they experienced their first intoxication by alcohol. Their level of drinking was also disproportionately high. This implied that the sex difference in alcohol use was smaller among users than among nonusers: male users of cannabis consumed 2.8 times more alcohol than their female counterparts, whereas the corresponding male to female ratio was 3:2 in the nonusers. The extensive use of alcohol in female cannabis users did not reflect mental health problems or a rejection of traditional sex-role characteristics. Cannabis-using males were less typically masculine in their values and preferences than other males, but not more feminine. The measures for sex-role-related preferences did not discriminate between female users and female nonusers of cannabis.