WHO recommends the inclusion of PCVs in childhood vaccination programs world-wide. Many countries including the Russian Federation are currently planning the inclusion of PCVs in their National Immunization Programs and, therefore, data on the pneumococcal serotype distribution is important to estimate the potential disease impact. Here we review eight recent epidemiological studies on the pneumococcal serotype distribution from Russia. Across all studies, serotypes 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were the most prevalent. Interestingly, serotype 3 was relatively common. Serotype 19A was prevalent among AOM, CAP and nasopharyngeal isolates and among antibiotic resistant isolates in all age groups. The differences in serotype coverage between PCV10 and PCV13 were up to 26%. Based on the current data on serotype distribution, a wide use of PCVs in Russia may lead to a significant reduction of the pneumococcal disease burden.