Climatic factor is most important condition for the formation of public health. Attention to it has increased recently against the background of global and regional climate change. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air temperature on population die off in the Voronezh city in the period of fire-related emergencies. Assessment of cause-and-effect relationships between the air temperature and daily death cases s was performed with the help of the method of time series. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive relationship between air temperature and population die off from all causes and from diseases of the circulatory system with a lag of 0, 1, 2, 3 days; respiratory diseases - with a lag of 3 days. With the gain in air temperature by one degree the number of deaths increases by 3%. The results were used in adopt management decisions on minimization risks and potential negative effects on human health.