Nutrition Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology and Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada; and email@example.com.
Over-the-counter vitamin supplements on the Canadian market are permitted to contain a daily vitamin B-12 dose of up to 1000 ?g. Our objective was to determine the association between total daily vitamin B-12 supplement dose and markers of vitamin B-12 status in Canadians. Blood collected from a nationally representative sample aged 6-79 y (n = ~5600) in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) was analyzed for serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Total daily intake of vitamin B-12 from single and multivitamin supplements was calculated. Individuals that indicated proton pump inhibitor or vitamin B-12 injection treatment were excluded from the supplement dose and tHcy analyses; folate-deficient individuals were also excluded from the tHcy analysis. Twenty-three percent of children, 12.3% of adolescents, and 25.5% of adults consumed a vitamin B-12-containing supplement. Supplement users had 33% higher serum vitamin B-12 and 4.2% higher prevalence of adequacy than did non-supplement users. Children and adolescents consuming >10 ?g/d supplemental vitamin B-12 did not demonstrate higher serum vitamin B-12, higher prevalence of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy, or lower tHcy than did those consuming >0-10 ?g/d. The association between serum vitamin B-12 reached a plateau at doses of >25 and >10-25 ?g/d in adults aged 46-59 and 60-79 y, respectively. The prevalences of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy and normal tHcy, and tHcy did not differ by vitamin B-12 supplement dose in adults >45 y. In this cross-sectional study, vitamin B-12 supplement doses >10-25 ?g/d were not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, or older adults compared with lower doses.