Neurofibromatosis 1 is a hereditary symptom predisposing to cancer, affecting some 1,500 Finnish people. This systemic disease is most commonly detected through cutaneous findings. Although the cutaneous symptoms are harmless, they impair the patients' quality of life. The disease is, however, insidious, as the complications often become manifested from unexpected organ systems. For example cancers originally from nervous systems and severe bone lesions require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare personnel should thus be aware of the diagnosis of NF syndrome, and the patients should have sufficient knowledge of their disease.