Reduction of risk factors at the population level forms the basis of the European recommendation of 2012 for the prevention of arterial diseases. Actions at the individual level arise from risk assessment. The risk of arterial disease is graded into four categories, the uppermost ones comprising patients who have already developed the disease, diabetics, those suffering from renal insufficiency and those carrying a serious gene defect. In Finland the risk among healthy people is assessed by using the FINRISKI tool. Non-smoking, healthy diet and regular exercise are suitable for all. Statins are an effective and safe means of prevention for those at high risk regardless of lipid values.