The Russian Federation similar to many other countries witnesses the continuous rise in the number of patients undergoing bilateral cochlear implantation. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of rehabilitation following bilateral cochlear implantation. A total of 28 patients admitted to the Russian Research and Practical Centre of Audiology and Hearing Rehabilitation between 2011 and 2012 were available for the examination with the use of tonal threshold audiometry. Twenty one patient underwent sequential cochlear implantation, simultaneous implantation was effected in the remaining 7 ones. The patients were tested by a speech therapist. The tonal threshold audiometry in the free sound field showed that the auditory thresholds corresponded to grade I hearing impairment. Free-field sound perception threshold in the bilaterally implanted patients with two active speech processors was significantly better than in those having one speech processor. All the patients exhibited binaural summation effect. Surdopedagogical testing revealed positive dynamics of the speech development. The positive dynamics was especially well apparent pronounced in the patients operated simultaneously or when the period between two implantations did not exceed 1 year. A reduction of the duration of the period between two surgical interventions resulted in the decreased difference between sound perception in two ears, improvement of sound localization, and acceleration of speech development. All the patients showed good speech recognition in the complex acoustic environment and the ability to locate sounds.