The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of universal audiological screening of newborn infants in Russia based on the results of this procedure obtained in 2011-2012 by the analysis of the activities of surdological centres in 15 regions of the country. It was shown, that the main indicators of the effectiveness of the screening are the technical equipment of maternity houses, newborn coverage at the first stage of screening, and its continuity. The study revealed 3.14% of the infants who failed to be involved in the first stage of screening. Hearing impairment was diagnosed in two of each 1,000 newborn infants at the second stage of screening, the frequency of severe forms of hearing impairment was estimated as three cases per 10,000 infants. The disadvantages of the current system of identification of newborn infants suffering congenital loss of hearing are discussed. The importance of the improvement of data collection methods is emphasized.