During a seven-years period, 898 women (9.9% of all deliveries) had a cesarean section at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Tromsø. 29.3% of the women suffered one or more complications (8.5% intraoperative, 23.1% postoperative). The most common complication was infection (22.3%). The following factors were associated with the occurrence of complications: emergency operation, obesity, labor prior to surgery, increased duration of labor or rupture of fetal membranes prior to operation, low gestational age, and station of the presenting part of the fetus below the ischial spinal plane. The same tendency was found for intra- and postoperative complications. Hb levels less than 12.0 g/100 ml increased the risk of infection. We suggest ways of reducing both the number of cesarean sections and the number of complications.