The presentation focuses on the repercussions of mining on the relations between the physical and human environments in the Arctic. Direct and indirect effects of mining on Inuit health are discussed from the general perspective of environmental health. First, potential direct effects on the human environment are described from the viewpoint of occupational health (traumatic, physical, chemical, biological risks) and the population's risks in regard to marine and land transportation. Then, indirect toxicological risks (mainly through the contamination of the food chain) as well as social and cultural impacts on human health are discussed (e.g., through relational stress, consumption pattern changes, pressure on resource management and land use, etc.). Finally, induced impacts of direct and indirect health effects are illustrated by case study examples of mineral resource development projects. Cumulative impacts of mining are highlighted in view of the need to evaluate and monitor long-term as well as short-term health effects through the integration of multidisciplinary evaluations and local knowledge, expectancies, and issues.