Pirkanmaa Hospital District, XXXX Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu Unit of General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu Finnish Diabetes Association, XXXX National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki South Ostrobothnia Hospital District, XXXX Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Unit of Family Practice, Central Finland Hospital District, Jyväskylä Kuopio University Hospital, and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, XXXX, †††Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio North Ostrobothnia Hospital District and Health Center of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Aims: To investigate whether a positive family history of diabetes is associated with the effectiveness of lifestyle counselling on cardio-metabolic risk factors and glucose tolerance status in a 1-year follow-up in a cohort of Finnish men and women at high risk for Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Altogether, 10 149 individuals who had high risk of Type 2 diabetes participated in the implementation programme of the national diabetes prevention programme at baseline. One-year follow-up data were available for 2798 individuals without diabetes. Family history of diabetes was based on self-report. Lifestyle interventions were individual or groups sessions on lifestyle changes. The effectiveness of lifestyle intervention was measured as changes in cardiovascular risk factors, glucose tolerance status and incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Results: Family history was associated with the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in men, but not in women. During the 1-year follow-up, body weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and score for 10-year risk for fatal cardiovascular disease (SCORE) decreased and glucose tolerance status improved more in men without a family history of diabetes than in men with a family history of diabetes. Of the participating men and women, 10% and 5% developed Type 2 diabetes, respectively. Family history was not related to the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in either gender. Conclusions: Men without a family history of diabetes were more successful in responding to lifestyle counselling with regard to cardio-metabolic measurements and glucose tolerance than those with a family history of diabetes. Similar results were not seen in women. In keeping with findings from earlier studies, the prevention of Type 2 diabetes is not influenced by a family history of diabetes.