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Adolescence risk factors are predictive of coronary artery calcification at middle age: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120679
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1364-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-9-2012
Author
Olli Hartiala
Costan G Magnussen
Sami Kajander
Juhani Knuuti
Heikki Ukkonen
Antti Saraste
Irina Rinta-Kiikka
Sakari Kainulainen
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Tomi Laitinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Jaakko Hartiala
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, and Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. olli.hartiala@utu.fi
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1364-70
Date
Oct-9-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Calcinosis - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Coronary Vessels - pathology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of adolescence risk factors in predicting coronary artery calcium (CAC).
Elevated coronary heart disease risk factor levels in adolescence may predict subsequent CAC independently of change in risk factor levels from adolescence to adulthood.
CAC was assessed in 589 subjects 40 to 46 years of age from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Risk factor levels were measured in 1980 (12 to 18 years) and in 2007.
The prevalence of any CAC was 19.2% (27.9% in men and 12.2% in women). Age, levels of systolic blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adolescence, as well as systolic BP, total cholesterol, diastolic BP, and pack-years of smoking in adulthood were higher among subjects with CAC than those without CAC. Adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels predicted CAC in adulthood independently of 27-year changes in these risk factors. The multivariable odds ratios were 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.70; p=0.02) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.77; p=0.01), for 1-SD increase in adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP, respectively. Exposure to both of these risk factors in adolescence (defined as values at or above the age- and sex-specific 75th percentile) substantially increased the risk of CAC (multivariable odds ratio: 3.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.2; p=0.007]) between groups with no versus both risk factors.
Elevated adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels are independent predictors of adulthood CAC, indicating that adolescence risk factor levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease.
Notes
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1371-322981554
PubMed ID
22981553 View in PubMed
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Adult dyslipidemia prediction is improved by repeated measurements in childhood and young adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268337
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2015 Apr;239(2):350-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Joel Nuotio
Mervi Oikonen
Costan G Magnussen
Jorma S A Viikari
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Antti Jula
Russell Thomson
Matthew A Sabin
Stephen R Daniels
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2015 Apr;239(2):350-7
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Atherosclerosis - blood - physiopathology
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - physiopathology
Child
Child, Preschool
Dyslipidemias - blood - physiopathology
Female
Finland
Humans
Lipids - blood - chemistry
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Prediction of adult dyslipidemia has been suggested to improve with multiple measurements in childhood or young adulthood, but there is paucity of specific data from longitudinal studies.
The sample comprised 1912 subjects (54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had fasting lipid and lipoprotein measurements collected at three time-points in childhood/young adulthood and had at least one follow-up in later adulthood. Childhood/young adult dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) or triglycerides (TG) in the highest quintile, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the lowest quintile. Adult dyslipidemia was defined according to European cut-points (TC > 5.0 mmol/L, LDL-C >3 mmol/L, Non-HDL-C >3.8 mmol/L, HDL-C  1.7 mmol/L). With the exception of triglycerides, Pearson correlation coefficients for predicting adult levels significantly improved when two lipid or lipoprotein measurements in childhood/young adulthood were compared with one measurement (all P 
PubMed ID
25682034 View in PubMed
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Aortic sinus diameter in middle age is associated with body size in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297426
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Jussi A Hernesniemi
Jarkko Heiskanen
Saku Ruohonen
Noora Kartiosuo
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Eero Jokinen
Päivi Tossavainen
Merja Kallio
Tomi Laitinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Tays Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Size - physiology
Body surface area
Child
Child, Preschool
Echocardiography
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Sinus of Valsalva - anatomy & histology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.
PubMed ID
29092920 View in PubMed
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Apolipoprotein B is related to arterial pulse wave velocity in young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138925
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jan;214(1):220-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
Teemu Koivistoinen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Markus Juonala
Tiit Kööbi
Heikki Aatola
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Mika Kähönen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland. teemu.koivistoinen@uta.fi
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jan;214(1):220-4
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Apolipoprotein A-I - metabolism
Apolipoproteins B - metabolism
Arteries - pathology
Blood pressure
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - metabolism
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Random Allocation
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Limited data are available regarding the relationship of apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A-1 (ApoA-1) with arterial stiffness. We conducted the present study to determine whether adulthood ApoB and ApoA-1 are related to arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV). Moreover, we examined whether ApoB and ApoA-1 measured in young adulthood are predictive of PWV assessed 6 years later.
The study population consisted of 1618 apparently healthy Finnish young adults (aged 30-45 years, 44.9% males) whose apolipoproteins, other cardiovascular risk factors and PWV were measured in 2007. In a sub-sample population, apolipoproteins and other cardiovascular risk factors had also been measured in 2001 (n=1264). PWV measurements were performed using a whole-body impedance cardiography device.
ApoB (p
PubMed ID
21122858 View in PubMed
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Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has a role in regulating systemic vascular tone in young healthy subjects: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156745
Source
Am J Hypertens. 2008 Aug;21(8):873-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Hannu Päivä
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Olli T Raitakari
Antti Jula
Jorma Viikari
Georg Alfthan
Markus Juonala
Reijo Laaksonen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Author Affiliation
Emergency Department, University Hospital of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. hannu.paiva@pshp.fi
Source
Am J Hypertens. 2008 Aug;21(8):873-8
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arginine - analogs & derivatives - blood
Blood Pressure - physiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Kidney - physiology
Lipids - blood
Male
Nitric Oxide - metabolism
Risk factors
Vascular Resistance - physiology
Vasoconstriction - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate whether plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has any role in predicting hemodynamic responses in clinically healthy young subjects. ADMA, as an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, has been demonstrated to associate with hypertension and vascular reactivity in experimental but not undoubtedly in physiological settings.
A total of 199 subjects aged 31.4 years (range 24-39 years) were studied. Plasma ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were assessed by isocratic high-pressure liquid chromatography using precolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde at baseline. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by casual measurements in the beginning of the study and after a follow-up period of 2.45 +/- 0.42 years (range, 1.86-3.19 years). Hemodynamic regulation was assessed by noninvasive methods after a follow-up.
Plasma ADMA had a negative association with resting systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) (r = -0.23, P
PubMed ID
18551100 View in PubMed
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Carotid artery elasticity decreases during pregnancy - the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257963
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:98
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Henna Kärkkäinen
Heli Saarelainen
Pirjo Valtonen
Tiina Laitinen
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Seppo Heinonen
Tomi Laitinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obst/Gyn, Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, P,O,B, 100FIN-70029 Kuopio, Finland. henna.karkkainen@kuh.fi.
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:98
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Atherosclerosis - epidemiology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - epidemiology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery, Common - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disease Progression
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular - epidemiology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Vascular Stiffness - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The aims were to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on carotid artery elasticity and determine the associations between maternal lipids, endothelial function and arterial elasticity during pregnancy.
We examined 99 pregnant and 99 matched non-pregnant control women as part of a population-based prospective cohort study. Carotid artery elasticity indexes; carotid artery distensibility (CAD), Young's elastic modulus (YEM) and stiffness index (SI) as well as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were assessed using ultrasound; serum lipid levels were also determined.
SI was 57% and YEM 75% higher and CAD 36% lower in the third trimester group than the corresponding values in the first trimester group. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in women at the end of the pregnancy than at the beginning of pregnancy (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
24602149 View in PubMed
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Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277421
Source
Psychosom Med. 2016 Feb-Mar;78(2):171-81
Publication Type
Article
Author
Christian Hakulinen
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Marko Elovainio
Laura D Kubzansky
Markus Jokela
Mirka Hintsanen
Markus Juonala
Mika Kivimäki
Kim Josefsson
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Jorma Viikari
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Olli T Raitakari
Source
Psychosom Med. 2016 Feb-Mar;78(2):171-81
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness - statistics & numerical data
Causality
Comorbidity
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Social Class
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity and having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression.
Participants were 2265 men and women (age range, 24-39 years in 2001) from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMTs were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment).
The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, standard error [SE] = 0.001, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
26809108 View in PubMed
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The Combined Effect of Common Genetic Risk Variants on Circulating Lipoproteins Is Evident in Childhood: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273850
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146081
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Marie-jeanne Buscot
Costan G Magnussen
Markus Juonala
Niina Pitkänen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Nicholas J Schork
Olli T Raitakari
Russell J Thomson
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146081
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cardiovascular diseases - blood - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol, HDL - blood - genetics
Cholesterol, LDL - blood - genetics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genetic Loci
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Triglycerides - blood - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Several genetic loci for predisposition to abnormal LDL-C, HDL-C and TG have been identified. However, it remains unclear whether these loci are consistently associated with serum lipid levels at each age or with unique developmental trajectories. Therefore, we assessed the association between genome wide association studies (GWAS) derived polygenic genetic risk scores and LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride trajectories from childhood to adulthood using data available from the 27-year European 'Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns' Study. For 2,442 participants, three weighted genetic risk scores (wGRSs) for HDL-C (38 SNPs), LDL-C (14 SNPs) and triglycerides (24 SNPs) were computed and tested for association with serum lipoprotein levels measured up to 8 times between 1980 and 2011. The categorical analyses revealed no clear divergence of blood lipid trajectories over time between wGRSs categories, with participants in the lower wGRS quartiles tending to have average lipoprotein concentrations 30 to 45% lower than those in the upper-quartile wGRS beginning at age 3 years and continuing through to age 49 years (where the upper-quartile wGRS have 4-7 more risk alleles than the lower wGRS group). Continuous analyses, however, revealed a significant but moderate time-dependent genetic interaction for HDL-C levels, with the association between HDL-C and the continuous HDL-C risk score weakening slightly with age. Conversely, in males, the association between the continuous TG genetic risk score and triglycerides levels tended to be lower in childhood and become more pronounced after the age of 25 years. Although the influence of genetic factors on age-specific lipoprotein values and developmental trajectories is complex, our data show that wGRSs are highly predictive of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels at all ages.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26731281 View in PubMed
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Continuous and Dichotomous Metabolic Syndrome Definitions in Youth Predict Adult Type 2 Diabetes and Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275393
Source
J Pediatr. 2016 Apr;171:97-103.e1-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Costan G Magnussen
Sanith Cheriyan
Matthew A Sabin
Markus Juonala
Juha Koskinen
Russell Thomson
Michael R Skilton
Mika Kähönen
Tomi Laitinen
Leena Taittonen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Source
J Pediatr. 2016 Apr;171:97-103.e1-3
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood
Carotid Arteries - pathology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - blood
Prospective Studies
ROC Curve
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine the utility of continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) scores vs a dichotomous metabolic syndrome (MetS) definition in youth to predict adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).
Participants (n = 1453) from the population-based, prospective, observational Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who were examined in youth (when aged 9-18 years) and re-examined 15-25 years later. Four cMetS scores were constructed according to procedures most often used in the literature that comprised the youth risk factor inputs of body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Adult outcomes included T2DM and high carotid IMT (= 90 th percentile).
For a 1 SD increase in cMetS scores in youth, participants had a 30%-78% increased risk of T2DM and 12%-61% increased risk of high carotid IMT. Prediction of adult T2DM and high carotid IMT using cMetS scores in youth was essentially no different to a dichotomous MetS definition with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.54-0.60 (continuous definitions) and 0.55-0.59 (dichotomous) with 95% CIs often including 0.5, and integrated discrimination improvement from -0.2% to -0.6%.
cMetS scores in youth are predictive of cardiometabolic outcomes in adulthood. However, they do not have increased predictive utility over a dichotomous definition of MetS.
Notes
Comment In: J Pediatr. 2016 Apr;171:14-526795681
PubMed ID
26681473 View in PubMed
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