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Alcohol and coronary heart disease risk--is there an unknown confounder?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173661
Source
Addiction. 2005 Aug;100(8):1150-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Kari Poikolainen
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Anne Linna
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Helsinki, Finland. kari.poikolainen@stakes.fi
Source
Addiction. 2005 Aug;100(8):1150-7
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
To evaluate whether confounding by several known or suspected coronary heart disease risk factors are likely to explain the lower coronary heart disease risk among light alcohol drinkers compared with never-drinkers.
A population-based cross-sectional study.
Hypertension, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, depression, sleep disturbances, smoking, physical activity, life satisfaction, psychological distress, trait anxiety, independent and dependent life events, length of working hours, job control, job strain and effort-reward imbalance were compared between never-drinkers and light drinkers (
PubMed ID
16042645 View in PubMed
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Changes in Sleep Duration During Transition to Statutory Retirement: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286863
Source
Sleep. 2017 Jul 01;40(7)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Saana Myllyntausta
Paula Salo
Erkki Kronholm
Ville Aalto
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Sari Stenholm
Source
Sleep. 2017 Jul 01;40(7)
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Employment - psychology
Female
Finland
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Public Sector
Regression Analysis
Retirement - psychology
Sleep - physiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Abstract
This study examined whether sleep duration changes during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement and, if this were the case, which preretirement factors, including sociodemographic, work, lifestyle, and health factors, predict these changes.
Data from repeated surveys of the Finnish Public Sector study, linked to records of retirement, were used. The study population consisted of 5785 participants who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who had responded to surveys on sleep duration at least once immediately before and after their retirement (mean number of repeat study waves 3.6). Linear regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to examine changes in sleep duration around retirement.
Before retirement there was a slight decrease in sleep duration. During the 4-year retirement transition, sleep duration increased from 7 hours 0 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 hours 54 minutes to 7 hours 6 minutes) to 7 hours and 22 minutes (95% CI 7 hours 16 minutes to 7 hours 27 minutes); thus, mean increase being 22 minutes. Increase in sleep duration was greatest in those who were short sleepers, heavy drinkers, or had sleep difficulties. After the retirement transition, sleep duration remained at approximately the same level, as no significant changes were observed.
This longitudinal study suggests that transition from full-time work to statutory retirement is associated with an increase in sleep duration.
PubMed ID
28541436 View in PubMed
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Education level and oral health in Finnish adults: evidence from different lifecourse models.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139480
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2011 Jan;38(1):25-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
Eduardo Bernabé
Anna L Suominen
Anne Nordblad
Miira M Vehkalahti
Hannu Hausen
Matti Knuuttila
Mika Kivimäki
Richard G Watt
Aubrey Sheiham
Georgios Tsakos
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. e.bernabe@qmul.ac.uk
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2011 Jan;38(1):25-32
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Binomial Distribution
Critical Period (Psychology)
Dental Caries - epidemiology - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Mouth, Edentulous - epidemiology - psychology
Oral Health
Periodontal Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Self-Assessment
Social Class
Social Mobility
Abstract
To assess the relationship between education level and several oral health outcomes in Finnish adults, using three conceptual lifecourse models.
This study analysed data from 7112 subjects, aged 30 years or over, who participated in the nationally representative Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Parental and own education levels were the childhood and adulthood socioeconomic measures, respectively. Oral health was indicated by edentulousness, perceived oral health and levels of dental caries and periodontal disease. Three conceptual lifecourse models, namely critical period, accumulation and social trajectories, were separately tested in regression models.
In line with the critical period model, parental and own education levels were independently associated with oral health after mutual adjustment. There was also a graded linear relationship between the number of periods of socioeconomic disadvantage and oral health, corresponding to the accumulation model. Gradual declines in oral health were evident between social trajectories from persistently high to upwardly mobile, downwardly mobile and persistently low groups.
There was similar support for the lifecourse models of critical period, accumulation and social trajectories. They collectively contribute to a better understanding of oral health inequalities.
PubMed ID
21058971 View in PubMed
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Employment status and differences in the one-year coverage of physician visits: different needs or unequal access to services?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167233
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:123
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Pekka Virtanen
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Markku Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. pekka.j.virtanen@uta.fi
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:123
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Dental Care - utilization
Employment - classification - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Health Care Surveys
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Needs and Demand - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Insurance Coverage
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health Services - utilization
Odds Ratio
Office Visits - utilization
Outpatient Clinics, Hospital - utilization
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - utilization
Private Practice - utilization
Regression Analysis
Abstract
The dichotomy employed vs. unemployed is still a relevant, but rather crude measure of status in current labour markets. Also, studies concerning the association of employment status with health have to specify the type of the employment as well as the characteristics of the unemployment. This study aims to reveal differences and potential inequalities in physician visits among seven groups in the core-periphery structures of the labour markets.
A total of 16,000 Finns responded to a postal survey in 2003. Their visits to physicians in public primary health care, occupational health care, private health services, hospital outpatient clinics and dental care services during previous year were measured as indicators of service utilisation. Participants were classified as employees having a permanent or fixed-term and full-time or part-time contract and as those experiencing short-term, prolonged or long-term unemployment. Differences in the one-year coverage of physician visits between these groups of employees were analysed using logistic regression analyses where differences in the need for services were controlled for by including demographics and self-rated health assessments in the models.
Permanently employed respondents had visited a physician most often, and the need-adjusted regression models showed significantly lower odds ratios for a visit among fixed-term employees (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81) and in particular among the long-term unemployed (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.14-0.31). A stratified analysis according to health care sector showed the lowest odds ratios in occupational health care and private physicians (ORs between 0.05 and 0.73) and also low odds ratios for dentists (ORs between 0.45 and 0.91), whereas visits to public primary health care were more common among non-permanent employees and the unemployed (ORs between 1.46 and 2.39).
The use of physician services varies according to labour market status, being relatively low among the non-permanently employed and the unemployed. This underuse is emphasised when clinical need is taken into account. The main reasons for the variance evidently lie in the structures of the Finnish health service system. The result may indicate non-optimal health care of the population on the periphery of the labour market, but it may also reflect the importance of employment status as a context for need and the decision to visit a physician.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17014702 View in PubMed
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Labor market trajectories and health: a four-year follow-up study of initially fixed-term employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175178
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 May 1;161(9):840-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2005
Author
Pekka Virtanen
Jussi Vahtera
Mika Kivimäki
Virpi Liukkonen
Marianna Virtanen
Jane Ferrie
Author Affiliation
Medical School, University of Tampere, FN-33014 Tampere, Finland. pekka.virtanen@uta.fi
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 May 1;161(9):840-6
Date
May-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Career Mobility
Confidence Intervals
Employment - classification - psychology - trends
Female
Finland
Health status
Humans
Marital status
Occupations
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
With the growth of atypical employment, there is increasing concern about the potential health-damaging effects of unstable employment. This prospective study of Finnish public-sector employees in 1998-2002 examined labor market trajectories and changes in health. At entry, all participants had a fixed-term job contract. Trajectories were measured by exposure to unstable employment during follow-up, destination employment status at the end of follow-up, and the way in which these elements were combined. Nonoptimal self-rated health at baseline was associated with high exposure to unstable employment and unemployment as the destination. After adjustment for health and psychological distress at baseline, a trajectory with stable employment as the destination was associated with a decreased risk of psychological distress at follow-up (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.98), whereas a trajectory toward the labor market periphery was related to increased risk of nonoptimal health (odds ratio = 2.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.47, 4.39) when compared with remaining in fixed-term employment. A significant dose-response relation was seen between the measure combining exposure to instability with destination employment status and nonoptimal health. This longitudinal study provides evidence of health-related selection into employment trajectories and suggests that the trajectories themselves carry different health risks.
PubMed ID
15840616 View in PubMed
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Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125884
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:236
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Mika Kivimäki
Kirsi Ahola
Kaisla Joutsenniemi
Marko Elovainio
Helena Rossi
Sampsa Puttonen
Seppo Koskinen
Erkki Isometsä
Jouko Lönnqvist
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland. laura.pulkki-raback@helsinki.fi
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:236
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Cluster analysis
Drug Utilization
Educational Status
Employment - psychology
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Psychosocial Deprivation
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association.
The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not) and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility), sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions), and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity), were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers.
Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23) higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05). The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11) and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14). Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors.
These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22443226 View in PubMed
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Organisational justice protects against the negative effect of workplace violence on teachers' sleep: a longitudinal cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284723
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jul;74(7):511-516
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Kia Gluschkoff
Marko Elovainio
Taina Hintsa
Jaana Pentti
Paula Salo
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jul;74(7):511-516
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Faculty - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Organizational Culture
Regression Analysis
Schools
Sleep
Sleep Wake Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Social Justice
Stress, Psychological
Surveys and Questionnaires
Workplace - psychology
Workplace Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching.
We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age.
Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep.
Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.
PubMed ID
28298417 View in PubMed
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Organization of nursing care and stressful work characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184721
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2003 Jul;43(2):197-205
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Arja Mäkinen
Mika Kivimäki
Marko Elovainio
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Division of Applied Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. arja.makinen@satshp.fi
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2003 Jul;43(2):197-205
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Administration Research
Nursing Service, Hospital - organization & administration
Nursing Staff, Hospital - psychology
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Regression Analysis
Stress, Psychological - etiology
Abstract
Occupational stress is assumed to arise from social arrangements that are partially determined by the modes of organization of work. However, there is little systematic research on the extent to which modes of organizing nursing work are related to stressful characteristics of work.
This study explored the relationship between modes of organizing nursing and stress.
Survey responses on modes of organization of nursing were collected from 27 ward sisters and those on stressful work characteristics from 568 nurses working in 27 wards with different nursing modes.
Four different nursing modes (primary, modular, team and functional nursing) were not consistently associated with stress. Statistically significant associations involved only certain features of these modes and specific components of stress. After the effects of demographic and ward characteristics were controlled for, hierarchical regression analyses showed that opportunity to write nursing notes decreased the likelihood of nurses' stress because of problems in interpersonal relationships. Writing nursing notes is common in patient-focused nursing modes (primary and modular nursing). Other features of nursing modes were not associated with stress.
In general, nursing mode is not associated with stressful job characteristics. However, certain aspects of patient-focused nursing reduce the likelihood of interpersonal problems among staff.
PubMed ID
12834378 View in PubMed
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Organization of nursing care as a determinant of job satisfaction among hospital nurses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183996
Source
J Nurs Manag. 2003 Sep;11(5):299-306
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Arja Mäkinen
Mika Kivimäki
Marko Elovainio
Marianna Virtanen
Senga Bond
Author Affiliation
Administrative Head Nurse, Division of Applied Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. arja.makinen@satshp.fi
Source
J Nurs Manag. 2003 Sep;11(5):299-306
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Finland
Hospital Units - organization & administration
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Job Satisfaction
Models, Nursing
Nurse's Role
Nursing Administration Research
Nursing Records
Nursing Staff, Hospital - organization & administration - psychology
Nursing, Team - organization & administration
Personnel Staffing and Scheduling - organization & administration
Primary Nursing - organization & administration
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Workload
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between methods of organizing nursing and employee satisfaction. Data were collected from 26 ward sisters and 568 nurses working in 26 bed wards with different stabilized nursing models. Methods of organizing nursing, such as primary, modular, team and functional nursing, were associated with job satisfaction. However, this association involved only certain features of these organizational models and specific components of satisfaction. After the effects of demographic and ward characteristics were partialed out, hierarchical regression analyses showed that patient-focused work allocation, opportunity to write nursing notes and accountability for patient care contributed to nurses' satisfaction with supervision and personal growth. The relationships of duty rota and liaison with other discipline to job satisfaction were weaker or non-existing.
PubMed ID
12930535 View in PubMed
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Pupils with special educational needs in basic education schools and teachers' sickness absences--a register-linkage study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126883
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):209-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Jenni Ervasti
Mika Kivimäki
Ichiro Kawachi
S V Subramanian
Jaana Pentti
Kirsi Ahola
Tuula Oksanen
Tiina Pohjonen
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Centre of Expertise for Work Organizations, Helsinki, Finland. jenni.ervasti@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):209-17
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Confidence Intervals
Education, Special - statistics & numerical data
Faculty - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Needs Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Stress, Psychological - complications - psychology
Students - statistics & numerical data
Teaching - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education schools increases the risk of sickness absence among teachers and whether this risk is dependent on the pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), an indicator of teacher resources at school.
We obtained register data on 8089 teachers working in 404 schools in 10 municipalities in Finland during the school year 2004-2005. We used multilevel multinomial regression models to examine the risk of teachers' short- and long-term sickness absence in relation to the percentage of SEN pupils and the PTR at school. We tested the equality of trends in groups with high and low PTR using PTR × SEN interaction term.
After adjustment for teacher and school characteristics, the risk for long-term absences was higher among teachers at schools with a high percentage of SEN pupils than among teachers at schools with a low percentage of SEN pupils [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-1.8). This was also the case for short-term absences (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7). In analyses stratified by the PTR levels, the association between the percentage of SEN pupils and long-term absences was 15% higher among teachers with a high PTR than among those with a low PTR (P for interaction=0.10).
Teachers' sickness absenteeism seems to increase with a higher percentage of SEN pupils, especially when the PTR is high. Teacher resources at schools that have a high percentage of SEN pupils should be well maintained to ensure the health of teachers.
PubMed ID
22344461 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.