OBJECTIVES: A pooled analysis of randomized trials has shown that oral anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of ischaemic stroke with 68% in patients with atrial fibrillation. We examined the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation on risk of stroke of any nature (fatal and nonfatal ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or flutter living in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. DESIGN: Cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We used the Hospital Discharge Registry covering the county (490 000 inhabitants) from 1991 to 1998 to identify 2699 men and 2425 women with atrial fibrillation or flutter, aged 60-89 years. Data on prescriptions of anticoagulation were obtained from the National Health Service. We defined use of oral anticoagulation as date of prescription or reiteration plus 90 days. Patients were followed in the County Hospital Discharge Registry until a diagnosis of stroke (fatal and nonfatal ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke), emigration, death or the end of 1998. We used Cox regression analyses to estimate the relative risk of stroke associated with use of oral anticoagulation compared with no use, adjusted for age, diabetes and underlying cardiovascular diseases. RESULTS: Eight hundred and thirty-eight of 2699 men (31%) and 552 of 2425 women (23%) with atrial fibrillation had one or more recorded prescriptions of oral anticoagulation. The incidence rates of stroke were 31 per 1000 person-years of follow-up in men, and 30 per 1000 person-years of follow-up in women. The adjusted relative risks of stroke during anticoagulation were 0.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.0] in men, and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.6) in women compared with nonuse periods. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of oral anticoagulation in clinical practice may be lesser than the efficacy of oral anticoagulation reported from randomized trials.
To examine the risk of 30-day postoperative mortality from transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients with liver cirrhosis, who are reportedly at considerably increased perioperative risk.
For the period 1 January 1977 to 31 December 1993, a population-based cohort was identified comprising Danish patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and a random sample of Danes also undergoing TURP. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between liver cirrhosis, age, type of admission, comorbidity and 30-day mortality.
In a cohort of 23 133 patients with liver cirrhosis, 30 underwent TURP; 150 controls with no liver cirrhosis also underwent the same procedure. Of the patients with liver cirrhosis, 6.7% died within 30 days of TURP; the estimated adjusted odds ratio was 3.0 (95% confidence interval 0.4-22.9) for the 30-day postoperative mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with patients without (mortality 2%). Advanced age, comorbidity and acute admission seemed to be associated with an increased postoperative mortality.
This study indicates that TURP in patients with liver cirrhosis was associated with increased mortality.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may activate the immune system and cause asthma.
To investigate the association of prenatal exposure to PPIs and histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) with risk of asthma.
In this cohort study, 197,060 singletons born between 1996 and 2008 in northern Denmark were followed until the end of 2009. Data were obtained through Danish medical registries. Asthma in offspring was defined as at least two prescriptions of both a ß-agonist and an inhaled glucocorticoid and/or a hospital diagnosis of asthma during the follow-up. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios, adjusting for covariates.
A total of 2238 (1.1%) children were prenatally exposed to PPIs and 24,506 (12.4%) children developed asthma during follow-up (median follow-up = 6.8 years). The adjusted IRR (aIRR) of asthma associated with prenatal exposure to PPIs was 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-1.56), compared with those unexposed. The association did not vary by trimester of exposure, and prenatal exposure to H2RAs was associated with similar increase in risk. The aIRR for maternal PPI and H2RA use in the year after, but not during pregnancy was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20-1.46) and 1.13 (0.93-1.36), respectively, compared with non-use during and in the year after pregnancy.
Prenatal exposure to both PPIs and H2RAs was associated with an increased risk of asthma in our study. Because the observed association is not drug specific and also observed for maternal postnatal use it may be explained by a 'class effect' or maternal underlying condition.
This population-based, historical, follow-up study analysed possible risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and resulting visual impairment in newborns over a period of 3 1/2 years in the County of Northern Jutland, Denmark. The study subjects were 141 infants with birth weight
AIM: To assess the safety of proton pump inhibitors during pregnancy. METHODS: Fifty-one pregnant women exposed to proton pump inhibitors around the time of conception or during pregnancy were compared with 13 327 controls without exposure to any prescribed drug in a population-based study based on The Pharmaco-Epidemiological Prescription Database of North Jutland and the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. RESULTS: Three babies with malformations were found among 38 women exposed to proton pump inhibitors from 30 days before conception to the end of the first trimester. No cases of stillbirth were recorded. Crude relative risks of malformation, low birth weight and preterm delivery were 1.6 (95% CI: 0.5-5.1), 1.8 (95% CI: 0.2-13.0) and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.9-6.0), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based follow-up study, we found no substantially elevated risk in terms of malformations, low birth weight or number of preterm deliveries in pregnancies exposed to proton pump inhibitors. However, further monitoring is warranted in order to establish or rule out a potential association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased risk of either cardiac malformations or preterm birth.
INTRODUCTION: We examined whether waist circumference and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were a better predictor for elevated alanine transaminase level than body mass index. METHODOLOGY: In a cross-sectional survey we examined body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, alcohol consumption, and alanine transaminase level in a random sample of 903 men and women aged 30 to 50 years from The Ebeltoft Health Promotion Project in Denmark. RESULTS: Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio explained an approximate 12% variation in alanine transaminase in men and 4% in women, whereas waist-to-hip circumference ratio explained a 2% variation in women. The risk of elevated alanine transaminase level in men, calculated as odds ratio, with a body mass index (kg/m2) above 30, or a waist circumference above 102 cm, or a waist-to-hip circumference ratio above 0.9 was 9.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-24.1), 5.6 (95% CI, 2.5-12.5) and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.3-5.3) respectively, but there was no elevated risk among women. CONCLUSIONS: Waist circumference and body mass index were both predictors in men. Waist-to-hip ratio was also a predictor in men, but not as strong a predictor as waist circumference and body mass index. No association was found in women. This difference is probably explained by differences in the accumulation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue among men and women with the same degree of obesity.