Few studies have associated height with cardiovascular diseases other than myocardial infarction. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study of 12,859 men born in 1955 or 1965 whose fitness for military service was assessed by Draft Boards in Northern Denmark. Hospital diagnoses for ischemic heart diseases, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and venous thromboembolism were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. Mortality data were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. We began follow-up on the 22nd birthday of each subject and continued until occurrence of an outcome, emigration, death, or 31 December 2012, whichever came first. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Compared with short stature, the education-adjusted HR among tall men was 0.67 (95 % CI 0.54-0.84) for ischemic heart disease (similar for myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and heart failure), 1.60 (95 % CI 1.11-2.33) for atrial fibrillation, 1.05 (95 % CI 0.75-1.46) for stroke, 1.04 (95 % CI 0.67-1.64) for venous thromboembolism, and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.58-0.86) for death. In conclusion, short stature was a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and premature death, but a protective factor for atrial fibrillation. Stature was not substantially associated with stroke or venous thromboembolism.
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) diagnosed relatively soon after a colonoscopy are referred to as interval CRCs. It is not clear whether interval CRCs arise from prevalent lesions missed at colonoscopy or represent specific aggressive biology leading to poor survival.
Using Danish population-based medical registries (2000-2009), we investigated patients with "interval" CRC diagnosed within 1-5 years of a colonoscopy, and compared them with cases with colonoscopy =10 years before diagnosis and to "sporadic" CRCs with no colonoscopy before diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the association between clinical, demographic, and comorbidity characteristics and interval CRC. We assessed survival using Kaplan-Meier methods and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Cox regression, adjusting for covariates including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI 0, 1-2, 3+).
The comparison of the 982 interval CRCs to the 358 patients with CRC =10 years after colonoscopy revealed nearly similar characteristics and mortality. In the comparison with the 35,704 sporadic CRCs, interval cases were slightly older (74 vs. 71 years), more likely to be female (54 vs. 48%), have comorbidities (CCI3+: 28 vs. 15%), have proximal tumors (38 vs. 22%), and tumors with mucinous histology (9.1 vs. 7.0%), but stage was similar (metastatic 23 vs. 24%). In logistic regression analysis, female sex, localized stage at diagnosis, proximal tumor location, and high comorbidity burden were factors independently associated with interval CRC. The 1-year survival was 68% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65%, 71%) in interval and 71% (95% CI: 70%, 71%) in sporadic cases, with an adjusted MRR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.82, 1.0). After 5 years, survival was 41% (95% CI: 37%, 44%) in interval and 43% (95% CI: 42%, 43%) in sporadic cases, and the adjusted 2-5 year MRR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.88, 1.2).
Clinical characteristics and survival among interval CRCs did not suggest aggressive biology, but rather that the majority represented missed lesions.
Comment In: Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Aug;108(8):1341-323912407
The association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been examined for men. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study to examine the BMI-associated risk of AF in 12,850 young men who had BMI measured at their examination of fitness for military service. AF was identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. We began follow-up on the twenty-second birthday of each subject and continued until the occurrence of AF, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for education and height. The cohort contributed a total of 375,888 person-years of follow-up and the median follow-up time was 26 years (mean 29 years). The incidence of AF per 100,000 person-years was 53 for men of normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 54 for underweight men (BMI
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exercise test results and the 5-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and myocardial infarction, in patients referred for exercise testing because of known or suspected coronary heart disease. DESIGN: A study of all patients (N = 2763) who in 1996 had an exercise test in two Danish counties (900000 inhabitants). Data and follow-up were based on medical records and general administrative healthcare and population registries. RESULTS: Abnormal tests, compared with normal ones, were associated with an increased adjusted cardiovascular mortality ratio of 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.63), all-cause mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.11-1.93), and myocardial infarction ratio of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.28-2.28). Inconclusive tests, compared with normal ones, were associated with an increased adjusted all-cause mortality ratio of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.05-2.20) and myocardial infarction ratio of 1.67 (95% CI: 1.12-2.56). A history of myocardial infarction increased the cardiovascular death ratio by 1.51 (95% CI: 1.05-2.16) and the myocardial infarction ratio by 2.39 (95% CI: 1.84-3.10). CONCLUSION: Over a 5-year period, the result of the bicycle exercise test was clearly associated with both mortality and risk of myocardial infarction. An inconclusive test may deserve special attention.
Comment In: Scand Cardiovasc J. 2004 Jun;38(3):132-415223708
The association between heart failure and dementia remains unclear. We assessed the risk of dementia among patients with heart failure and members of a general population comparison cohort.
Individual-level data from Danish medical registries were linked in this nationwide population-based cohort study comparing patients with a first-time hospitalization for heart failure between 1980 and 2012 and a year of birth-, sex-, and calendar year-matched comparison cohort from the general population. Stratified Cox regression analysis was used to compute 1-35-year hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of all-cause dementia and, secondarily, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other dementias. Analyses included 324 418 heart failure patients and 1 622 079 individuals from the general population (median age 77?years, 52% male). Compared with the general population cohort, risk of all-cause dementia was increased among heart failure patients [adjusted HR 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-1.24]. The associations were stronger in men and in heart failure patients under age 70. Heart failure patients had higher risks of vascular dementia (adjusted HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.40-1.59) and other dementias (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.26-1.34) than members of the general population cohort. Heart failure was not associated with Alzheimer's disease (adjusted HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96-1.04).
Heart failure was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia. Heart failure may represent a risk factor for dementia, but not necessarily for Alzheimer's disease.
Cites: Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Nov 17;7:449-9026604824
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(7 Suppl):54-721775352
Cites: Lancet. 2005 Dec 17;366(9503):2112-716360788
Accurate population-based data are needed on the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among patients with Barrett's esophagus.
We conducted a nationwide, population-based, cohort study involving all patients with Barrett's esophagus in Denmark during the period from 1992 through 2009, using data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the Danish Cancer Registry. We determined the incidence rates (numbers of cases per 1000 person-years) of adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia. As a measure of relative risk, standardized incidence ratios were calculated with the use of national cancer rates in Denmark during the study period.
We identified 11,028 patients with Barrett's esophagus and analyzed their data for a median of 5.2 years. Within the first year after the index endoscopy, 131 new cases of adenocarcinoma were diagnosed. During subsequent years, 66 new adenocarcinomas were detected, yielding an incidence rate for adenocarcinoma of 1.2 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.5). As compared with the risk in the general population, the relative risk of adenocarcinoma among patients with Barrett's esophagus was 11.3 (95% CI, 8.8 to 14.4). The annual risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 0.12% (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.15). Detection of low-grade dysplasia on the index endoscopy was associated with an incidence rate for adenocarcinoma of 5.1 cases per 1000 person-years. In contrast, the incidence rate among patients without dysplasia was 1.0 case per 1000 person-years. Risk estimates for patients with high-grade dysplasia were slightly higher.
Barrett's esophagus is a strong risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the absolute annual risk, 0.12%, is much lower than the assumed risk of 0.5%, which is the basis for current surveillance guidelines. Data from the current study call into question the rationale for ongoing surveillance in patients who have Barrett's esophagus without dysplasia. (Funded by the Clinical Institute, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.).
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), timely reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment. In primary PCI patients with multivessel disease, it is unclear whether culprit vessel PCI only is the preferred treatment. We compared mortality among (1) STEMI patients with single-vessel disease and those with multivessel disease and (2) multivessel disease patients with and without additional revascularization of nonculprit lesions within 2 months after the index PCI.
From January 2002 to June 2009, all patients presenting with STEMI and treated with primary PCI were identified from the Western Denmark Heart Registry, which covers a population of 3.0 million. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was estimated using a Cox regression model, controlling for potential confounding.
The study cohort consisted of 8,822 patients: 4,770 (54.1%) had single-vessel disease and 4,052 (45.9%) had multivessel disease. Overall, 1-year cumulative mortality was 7.6%, and 7-year cumulative mortality was 24.0%. Multivessel disease was associated with higher 7-year mortality (adjusted HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.30-1.62], P
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common, with surgery as the main curative treatment. The prevalence of chronic liver disease has increased, but knowledge is limited on postoperative mortality in patients with liver disease who undergo CRC surgery. Hence, we examined 30-day mortality after CRC surgery in patients with liver disease compared to those without liver disease.
We used medical databases to conduct a nationwide cohort study of all patients undergoing CRC surgery in Denmark from 1996 through 2009. We further identified patients diagnosed with any liver disease before CRC surgery and categorized them into two cohorts: patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease and patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients without liver disease were defined as the comparison cohort. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we computed 30-day mortality after CRC surgery in each cohort. We used a Cox regression model to compute hazard ratios as measures of the relative risk (RR) of death, controlling for potential confounders including comorbidities. In order to examine the impact of liver disease in different subgroups, we stratified patients by gender, age, cancer stage, cancer site, timing of admission, type of surgery, comorbidity level, and non-hepatic alcohol-related disease.
Overall, 39,840 patients underwent CRC surgery: 369 (0.9%) had non-cirrhotic liver disease and 158 (0.4%) had liver cirrhosis. Thirty-day mortality after CRC surgery was 8.7% in patients without liver disease and 13.3% in patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease (adjusted RR of 1.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.98). Among patients with liver cirrhosis, mortality was 24.1%, corresponding to an adjusted RR of 2.59 (95% CI: 1.86-3.61). The negative impact of liver disease on postoperative mortality was found in all subgroups.
Pre-existing liver disease was associated with a markedly increased 30-day mortality following CRC surgery.
Cites: Science. 2000 Mar 31;287(5462):2398-910766613
The long-term prognosis for young myocardial infarction (MI) survivors remains poorly understood.
We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using prospectively collected medical data from all hospitals in Denmark during 1980 to 2009. We examined 30-year cause-specific death rates among 21?693 MI patients