A low socio-economic status (SES) is related to less healthy dietary habits, but the reasons for this remain unclear. We examined whether the absolute or relative importance of various food choice motives contributed to SES disparities in vegetable/fruit and energy-dense food intake.
We analysed cross-sectional data from the FINRISK Study 2007 by means of structural equation modelling and used a shortened version of the Food Choice Questionnaire to assess the absolute importance of health, pleasure, convenience, price, familiarity and ethicality motives. We calculated the relative importance of each motive by dividing the participant's rating of it by his/her mean score on all motives. Dietary intake was measured with an FFQ.
A population-based survey in Finland.
Men (n 1691) and women (n 2059) aged 25-64 years.
Higher education and income were related to a greater vegetable/fruit intake (ß = 0·12, P
The associations of dietary folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), and methionine intakes with risk of stroke subtypes were examined among 26,556 male Finnish smokers, aged 50-69 years, enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through 2004, 2,702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified from national registers. In analyses adjusting for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high folate intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.91; p(trend) = 0.001) for men in the highest versus lowest quintile of folate intake. Vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), and methionine intakes were not significantly associated with any subtype of stroke. These findings in men suggest that a high dietary folate intake may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction.
The aim of the present study was to compare the lifestyle (leisure-time physical activity, smoking habits and alcohol consumption) and dietary (energy-yielding nutrients, dietary fibre and foods) factors of Finns with a new syndrome called normal-weight obesity (NWO) with those of lean and overweight Finns. The representative population-based study included 4786 participants (25-74 years) from the National FINRISK 2007 Study with a health examination and questionnaires. Food intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. NWO was defined to include those with a normal BMI (
The positive impact of general vitamin D food fortification policy on vitamin D status in a representative adult Finnish population: evidence from an 11-y follow-up based on standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D data.
Background: A systematic vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products and fat spreads was started in 2003 in Finland to improve vitamin D status. Objective: We investigated the effects of the vitamin D fortification policy on vitamin D status in Finland between 2000 and 2011.Design: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations of a nationally representative sample comprising 6134 and 4051 adults aged =30 y from the Health 2000 and Health 2011 surveys, respectively, were standardized according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations.Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the mean S-25(OH)D increased from 48 nmol/L (95% CI: 47, 48 nmol/L) to 65 nmol/L (95% CI: 65, 66 nmol/L) (P 50 nmol/L in 2011.Conclusions: The vitamin D status of the Finnish adult population has improved considerably during the time period studied. The increase is mainly explained by food fortification, especially of fluid milk products, and augmented vitamin D supplement use. Other factors, such as the difference in the ultraviolet radiation index between 2000 and 2011, may partly explain the results. When consuming vitamin D sources based on the nutritional recommendations, vitamin D status is sufficient [S-25(OH)D =50 nmol/L], and supplementation is generally not needed.