3-,9- and 15-year-old children were studied in autumn in order to evaluate their serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) concentration and their vitamin D intake. The 25-OH-D was significantly lower in the 15-year-old than in the other children, but it was satisfactory in all groups as compared to the 25-OH-D of healthy, young adults. The mean dietary vitamin D intake as well as the mean total vitamin D intake including supplements was low in all groups of children. With a vitamin D intake as low as in this study, every house-bound child would be at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
In connection with a survey of child nutrition in Finland the haemoglobin and heamatocrit values in childhood and the prevalence of anaemia were studied. The series consisted of 1534 children aged 5, 9 and 13 years. The haemoglobin concentrations in those age groups were 12.60 +/- 0.81, 13.24 +/- 0.77 and 13.64 +/- 0.77 and 13.64 +/- 0.90 g/100 ml, respectively. The haematocrit values were 38.0 +/- 2.53, 39.6 +/- 2.50 and 40.8 +/- 3.00%. In the total series, 3.0% of the Hb values and 4.8% of the PCV values were below the WHO norms. No difference was found between anaemic and non-anaemic children with respect to the mean daily intake of dietary iron or the intake of iron from the food group eggs, meat and fish in absolute amounts or per 1000 kcal. Anaemic 5-year-old children, however, obtained from this food group a significantly smaller percentage of their total dietary iron than the non-anaemic children of the same age.
[Monitoring food consumption and nutritional status of Moscow schoolchildren in 1992-1994. 2. Anthropometric evaluation of nutritional status, effect of social factors on the character and status of nutrition].
In this part of the study the nutritional status of Moscow's schoolchildren was assessed by height and weight. The anthropometric data were compared with the CDC/WHO international growth references standards by ANTHRO version 1.01 software. The prevalence of low weight-for-age (Z-score
In connection with a survey of child nutrition in Finland a study was carried out on the serum cholesterol concentration in childhood and its relationship to dietary and other variables. The material consisted of 1496 children ages 5, 9, and 13 years from 14 local districts in Finland. Total cholesterol was determined from nonfasted venous serum samples by a modification of the p-toluenesulfonic acid reaction. Food consumption was investigated by the 24-hr recall method and nutrient intakes determined from these results using food composition tables. For analysis, children in each age group were classified into low, medium, and high cholesterol groups. The serum cholesterol concentrations of the 5, 9, and 13 year olds were 6.03 +/- 1.03, 6.16 +/- 1.04, and 6.08 +/- 1.01 mmole/liter (233 +/- 40, 238 +/- 40, and 235 +/- 39 mg/100 ml), respectively. Of the children 10% had serum cholesterol concentrations of 7.4 mmole/liter (286 mg/100 ml) or more. Serum cholesterol concentration was not correlated with sex, relative body weight, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. High cholesterol concentrations appeared to be associated with traditional dietary habits and especially with a high proportion of saturated fats in the diet.
[Development of a method of studying actual nutrition according to analysis of the frequency of consumption of food products: creation of a questionnaire and general evaluation of the reliability of the method].
The method of actual feeding evaluation on frequency of food-stuffs consumption was developed. The method of 24-hour reproduction of a feed and the method of consumed food registration in a diary by testing person himself. The main results of study testified to reliability of data, received by a developed method.
We studied the actual consumption of specific food groups of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and analyzed the nutritional risk factors for OA in case-control study. Level of consumption of all types of dairy products was significantly lower in the group of patients with OA compared with controls. The relative risk of developing OA in the consumption of less than 573 g (median) of dairy products in terms of milk increases by 5-6 times.
The aim of the study was to evaluate and to compare the 24-hr recall method with the dietary history method as used in a food consumption survey of children. Information on the dietary intkake was obtained by 24-hour recall from 158 children and by the history method from 134. The interviews are repeated 7 months later. In addition, 741 children were interviewed by both methods on the same occasion. The repeatability of the results was analyzed both at the individual and at the group level. The correlation coefficients between the first and second interview in terms of the individual intakes of energy and nutrients were fairly low for both methods. At the group level the results of repeated 24-hr recalls were in good agreement. The dietary history method, however, gave significantly different mean intakes when repeated. The correlation coefficients between the values obtained by the 24-hr recall and the history method varied from 0.20 (vitamin A) to 0.50 (energy). The history method gave consistently higher mean values than the 24-hr recall. Neither of the methods can be considered suitable for the measurement of an individual child's dietary intake. The 24-hr recall is preferable for food consumption surveys of groups of children.