In order to assess the prevalence and importance of abdominal pain in the elderly, an epidemiological study of a 70-year-old Danish population was carried out. Seventy two percent of 1119 randomly selected persons answered a questionnaire concerning abdominal pain. One year prevalence of abdominal pain was 28% among women and 17% among men (p
The aim of the study was to assess the association of abdominal symptoms in a random sample of a general population and to find whether the associations could be confirmed at follow-up 5 years later. The study population was a sex- and age-stratified random sample of people living in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. Of 4807 eligible subjects 79% attended the study and filled in a questionnaire on abdominal symptoms. Five years later the study was repeated and 85% of the survivors participated. Data from both studies were analysed separately for sex, age group and the following pain variables: unspecified abdominal pain, pain located to the epigastrium, pain provoked by stress or hunger, pain relieved by eating and pain relieved by defecation. Three clusters of symptoms occurred in all the analyses: borborygmi/altering stool consistency/distension; acid regurgitation/heartburn and nausea/vomiting. Unspecified pain was associated with all three clusters, pain provoked by stress or hunger and pain relieved by defecation associated with the borborygmi/altering stool/distension cluster, whereas pain in the epigastrium and pain relieved by eating did not show consistent relationships to any of the clusters. Additionally, the clusters associated with each other more often than could be expected by chance. As a consequence of our findings we suggest that the three clusters of symptoms constitute three common abdominal syndromes.
Gestational age estimation by last menstrual period (LMP) vs. ultrasound (or best obstetric estimate in the US) may result in discrepant classification of preterm vs. term birth. We investigated whether such discrepancies are associated with adverse infant outcomes.
We studied singleton livebirths in the Medical Birth Registries of Norway, Sweden and Finland and US live birth certificates from 1999 to the most recent year available. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by discordant and concordant gestational age estimation for infant, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, Apgar score
To evaluate risk of adverse obstetric outcomes and operative deliveries in female cancer survivors (diagnosed younger than 35 years of age) compared with female siblings of survivors.
Nationwide cancer and birth registries were merged to identify 1,800 first postdiagnosis deliveries of female cancer survivors and 7,137 first deliveries of female siblings between January 1987 and December 2013. Multiple unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk for adverse obstetric outcomes and operative deliveries adjusting for maternal age, year of delivery, gestational age, and smoking.
We found a significantly elevated risk for induction of labor, 19.1% in survivors and 15.6% in siblings (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.35) and cesarean delivery, 23.6% in survivors and 18.6% in siblings (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.31) among cancer survivors compared with female siblings. The risks of instrumental vaginal delivery, malpresentation, placental pathologies, and postpartum hemorrhage were not, however, elevated among cancer survivors. The highest risks of adverse obstetric outcomes were seen among women treated in their childhood (aged 0-14 years).
Cancer survivors have a small but statistically increased risk for induction of labor and cesarean delivery compared with siblings without a history of cancer. Our findings indicate that pregnancies in cancer survivors are typically uncomplicated and cancer survivors should not be discouraged to have children after their cancer is cured.
Anaemia during pregnancy is an important public health problem. We investigated whether the association between maternal anaemia during pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes differed between nulliparous and multiparous women.
A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using data on all singleton births (n?=?290?662) recorded in the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2006-10. Maternal anaemia was defined as a maternal haemoglobin level of
The rate of repeat induced abortion varies from 30% to 38% in northern Europe. Thus, repeat abortion is an important public health issue. However, risk factors as regards repeat abortion are poorly understood. We characterized risk factors related to sociodemographic characteristics, history of abortion and post-abortal contraception.
A prospective cohort study of 1269 women undergoing medical abortion between August 2000 and December 2002 was conducted. The subjects were followed via the Finnish Registry of Induced Abortions until December 2005, the follow-up time (mean+/-SD) being 49.2+/-8.0 months.
Altogether, 179 (14.1%) of the subjects requested repeat abortion within the follow-up time. In univariate analysis, a history of prior abortion, being parous, young age, smoking and failure to attend the follow-up visit were associated with repeat abortion. Immediate--in contrast to postponed--initiation of any contraceptive method was linked to a lower risk of repeat abortion. In comparison with combined oral contraceptives, use of intrauterine contraception was most efficacious in reducing the risk of another pregnancy termination. In multivariate analysis, the effects of young age, being parous, smoking, a history of prior abortion and type of contraception on the risk of another abortion persisted.
An increased focus on young women, parous women and those with a history of abortion may be efficacious in decreasing repeat abortion. Contraceptive choices made at the time of abortion have an important effect on the rate of repeat abortion. Use of intrauterine contraceptives for post-abortal contraception was associated with decreased risk of repeat abortion.
The increase in maternal age has been well documented in Western societies, but information on paternal age trends is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in age and other background characteristics of first-time fathers in Finland in the period 1987-2009.
A random 60% sample of first-time fathers in each year from 1987 to 2009 was obtained from Statistics Finland (n=344,529). Five-year intervals were used (three years in 1987-1989). Sociodemographic characteristics of older first-time fathers (?40 years) were compared over time using logistic regression. In the logistic regression, immigrants were excluded from the study population as they may have had children before migrating to Finland.
The mean age of first-time fathers increased from 28.7 to 30.4 years in 1987-2009. The change was greatest in the Capital Region and smallest in Northern and Eastern Finland. Fatherhood at the age of ?40 years doubled from 3.1% to 6.8%. From 2005 to 2009, men who lived in rural areas and the Capital Region, had a long education, were divorced or widowed, had been born in a rural area and were native Finnish speakers, were more likely than other men to be old when they became fathers. CONCLUSIONS DURING THE STUDY PERIOD, THE AVERAGE AGE OF FIRST-TIME FATHERS INCREASED BY TWO YEARS FURTHER STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO EXAMINE WHETHER DELAYS IN FIRST-TIME FATHERHOOD AFFECT FERTILITY, CHILD HEALTH AND THE USE OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES.
To study the relations between postnatal maternal morbidity, child morbidity and welfare interventions in families with prenatal alcohol or substance abuse.
A register-based longitudinal retrospective cohort study. The exposed cohort included 638 children born to 524 women followed-up during pregnancy for alcohol or substance abuse 1992-2001. Non-exposed children (n = 1914) born to control women were matched for maternal age, parity, number of foetuses, month of birth and delivery hospital of the index child. Perinatal and follow-up data of both cohorts were collected from national registers until 2007.
Postnatal maternal abuse-related healthcare utilization and use of medication were associated with child out-of-home care. Significant differences were in particular observed in the categories of maternal mental and behavioural disorders caused by psychoactive substance use as well as injury and poisoning. Maternal inpatient care for mental and behavioural disorders peaked at the time of child out-of-home care. Maternal abuse-related healthcare utilization was associated with early child healthcare utilization and use of medication for mental and behavioural disorders. These associations were largely explained by the association with child out-of-home care.
Postnatal maternal abuse-related morbidity is associated with significant early child morbidity, use of medication and timing of out-of-home care.
In 1990 and 1998 15-41-year-old people were patch-tested in 2 cross-sectional studies of random samples of the population in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. In 1990, 290 subjects and in 1998, 469 subjects were patch-tested. The participation rates were 69% and 51%, respectively. Contact sensitivity to one or more haptens was found in 15.9% and 18.6% in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Nickel sensitivity is still the most common contact sensitivity. The risk of contact sensitivity to the cosmetic-related haptens included in the series (formaldehyde was not included) increased significantly from 2.4% in 1990 to 5.8% in 1998 (odds ratio 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.04-5.73). The prevalence of contact sensitivity to cosmetic-related allergens has been doubled between 1990 and 1998.
The influence of symptomatic anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer on short and long-term mortality and local and distant recurrence was analysed.
All patients with a first diagnosis of rectal carcinoma were prospectively registered in a national database. This comprised 1494 Danish citizens who had had a curative AR between May 2001 and December 2004. Data on survival and recurrence were obtained from the National Patient Register. Multivariate analyses were performed.
Anastomotic leakage increased the 30-day mortality [odds ratio (OR) 4.01 (95% CI 2.24-7.17)]. Of other possible risk factors, only age had a significant interaction with leakage, as the risk of death within 30 days of AR decreased with increasing age. Long-term survival decreased significantly after AL [hazard ratio (HR) of 1.63, CI 1.21-2.19]. A total of 97 (6.7%) and 258 (18.0%) patients had local and distant recurrence respectively in the follow-up period. The risk of local and distant recurrence after AL was not different with HR of 1.50 (CI 0.84-2.69) and 1.13 (CI 0.76-1.69) respectively. No other factors influenced the risk of recurrence due to AL.
Anastomotic leakage after AR for rectal cancer increases the 30-day and long-term mortality, but AL did not increase the risk of local and distant recurrence.