In order to assess the prevalence and importance of abdominal pain in the elderly, an epidemiological study of a 70-year-old Danish population was carried out. Seventy two percent of 1119 randomly selected persons answered a questionnaire concerning abdominal pain. One year prevalence of abdominal pain was 28% among women and 17% among men (p
The aim of the study was to assess the association of abdominal symptoms in a random sample of a general population and to find whether the associations could be confirmed at follow-up 5 years later. The study population was a sex- and age-stratified random sample of people living in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. Of 4807 eligible subjects 79% attended the study and filled in a questionnaire on abdominal symptoms. Five years later the study was repeated and 85% of the survivors participated. Data from both studies were analysed separately for sex, age group and the following pain variables: unspecified abdominal pain, pain located to the epigastrium, pain provoked by stress or hunger, pain relieved by eating and pain relieved by defecation. Three clusters of symptoms occurred in all the analyses: borborygmi/altering stool consistency/distension; acid regurgitation/heartburn and nausea/vomiting. Unspecified pain was associated with all three clusters, pain provoked by stress or hunger and pain relieved by defecation associated with the borborygmi/altering stool/distension cluster, whereas pain in the epigastrium and pain relieved by eating did not show consistent relationships to any of the clusters. Additionally, the clusters associated with each other more often than could be expected by chance. As a consequence of our findings we suggest that the three clusters of symptoms constitute three common abdominal syndromes.
In 1990 and 1998 15-41-year-old people were patch-tested in 2 cross-sectional studies of random samples of the population in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. In 1990, 290 subjects and in 1998, 469 subjects were patch-tested. The participation rates were 69% and 51%, respectively. Contact sensitivity to one or more haptens was found in 15.9% and 18.6% in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Nickel sensitivity is still the most common contact sensitivity. The risk of contact sensitivity to the cosmetic-related haptens included in the series (formaldehyde was not included) increased significantly from 2.4% in 1990 to 5.8% in 1998 (odds ratio 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.04-5.73). The prevalence of contact sensitivity to cosmetic-related allergens has been doubled between 1990 and 1998.
The influence of symptomatic anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer on short and long-term mortality and local and distant recurrence was analysed.
All patients with a first diagnosis of rectal carcinoma were prospectively registered in a national database. This comprised 1494 Danish citizens who had had a curative AR between May 2001 and December 2004. Data on survival and recurrence were obtained from the National Patient Register. Multivariate analyses were performed.
Anastomotic leakage increased the 30-day mortality [odds ratio (OR) 4.01 (95% CI 2.24-7.17)]. Of other possible risk factors, only age had a significant interaction with leakage, as the risk of death within 30 days of AR decreased with increasing age. Long-term survival decreased significantly after AL [hazard ratio (HR) of 1.63, CI 1.21-2.19]. A total of 97 (6.7%) and 258 (18.0%) patients had local and distant recurrence respectively in the follow-up period. The risk of local and distant recurrence after AL was not different with HR of 1.50 (CI 0.84-2.69) and 1.13 (CI 0.76-1.69) respectively. No other factors influenced the risk of recurrence due to AL.
Anastomotic leakage after AR for rectal cancer increases the 30-day and long-term mortality, but AL did not increase the risk of local and distant recurrence.
BACKGROUND: There is a considerable gap between recommended and actually conducted preventive cardiology in general practice. The effect of guidelines is not fully evaluated. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 10 questions on preventive cardiology, including the use of clinical guidelines, together with four case stories for cardiovascular risk estimation was mailed to 205 general practitioners (GPs). RESULTS: Response rate was 81%. Twenty-five percent of the GPs had consultations in preventive cardiology at least once a day and 60% of the GPs thought lifestyle intervention had significant effect on cardiovascular risk. Approximately two-thirds of the GPs were regular users of national guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease. While the majority of GPs correctly assigned a patient with multiple risk factors to the high-risk category there was a much larger variation in risk estimations if fewer risk factors were present. GPs who reported use of guidelines overestimated coronary risk twice as frequently as nonusers of guidelines. CONCLUSION: Preventive cardiology in general practice is common and the effect of lifestyle intervention is well accepted. Poor discrimination between high- and low-risk patients may, however, lead to suboptimal preventive care. The use of guidelines does not seem to improve risk estimation and further dissemination of better tools for risk estimation is needed.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages. Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake appeared to be stable over the range of age and BMI in both sexes. As compared to estimated total energy expenditure, both diet assessment methods underestimated energy intake by approximately 20%. For both methods the under-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. CONCLUSIONS: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council, the FREJA programme.
This study examines the association between lifestyle factors, chronic disease, body-indices, and the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Danish adults. The relationship between age at menarche and H. pylori infection is also assessed. A random sample of 3,608 Danish adults completed a questionnaire about lifestyle factors (smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and coffee and tea intake), doctor diagnosed chronic diseases (heart conditions, diabetes, chronic bronchitis, and hypertension), menarche, and socio-demographic factors. A total of 2,913 participants were eligible for the present study. Electrocardiographs were recorded and blood pressure and serum lipid levels (HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and cholesterol) were measured. Height and weight were determined and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Sera were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of H. pylori specific IgG antibodies. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was associated with weekly alcohol intake > or = 6 drinks (odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.6-0.9) due to a low rate of H. pylori infection among wine drinkers (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.7). No associations were found with smoking habits or serum lipids. People with upper quartile BMI (> or = 26.8 kg/m2) were more likely to be seropositive for antibodies to H. pylori (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.4). Chronic bronchitis (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.5) and unspecified heart condition (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.3) was more often seen in IgG seropositive women than in uninfected women. The likelihood of being seropositive for IgG antibodies to H. pylori increased with age at menarche (odds ratio per year 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.19). Previously reported associations with age and socioeconomic status were confirmed. We conclude that wine drinking is associated with lower rates of H. pylori infection in Danish adults. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection is increased in people with high BMI. H. pylori infection may relate to a history of late menarche and chronic bronchitis in Danish women.
The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 1, DIKU Building, Room 1.1.N121, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Kristoffer.Burgdorf@sund.ku.dk
Genome-wide association studies have identified novel WHR and BMI susceptibility loci. The aim of this study was to elucidate if any of these loci had an effect on quantitative measures of glucose homeostasis, including estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity in an epidemiological setting.
By applying an additive genetic model, 14 WHR-associated gene variants and 18 BMI-associated variants were investigated for their relationships with glucose-related metabolic traits in treatment-naive individuals from the population-based Inter99 study sample (n?=?6,039).
Of the variants associated with BMI, the QPCTL rs2287019 C allele was associated with an increased insulinogenic index of 7.4% per risk allele (p?=?4.0?×?10?7) and increased disposition index of 5.6% (p?=?6.4?×?10?5). The LRP1B rs2890652 C allele was associated with insulin resistance, showing a 3.3% increase (p?=?0.0011) using the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and a 2.2% reduction (p?=?0.0014) with the Matsuda index. Of the variants associated with WHR, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10 rs4846567 G allele carriers showed a 5.2% lower HOMA-IR (p?=?0.00086) in women, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Female carriers of the VEGFA rs6905288 A allele were insulin resistant, with a 3.7% increase in HOMA-IR (p?=?0.00036) and 4.0% decrease in Matsuda index (p?=?2?×?10?4).
Our correlative findings from analysing single-locus data suggest that some variation in validated BMI and WHR loci are associated with either increased or decreased insulin sensitivity and thereby potentially with metabolically healthy or metabolically unhealthy subsets of obesity. The results call for testing in larger study samples and for further physiological exploration of the possible metabolic implications of these loci.
There is a considerable interest in the possible relationship between psychosocial factors and the onset of breast cancer. This cohort study was based upon two nationwide and population-based central registers: The Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contains all cases of psychiatric admissions, and The Danish Cancer Registry, which contains all cases of cancer. The register-linkage was accomplished by using a personal identification number. The study population comprised all women admitted to psychiatric departments or psychiatric hospitals in Denmark between 1969 and 1993 with an affective or a neurotic disorder. Overall, 66,648 women comprising 199,910 admissions and 775,522 person-years were included. The incidence of breast cancer in the cohort was compared with the national breast cancer incidence rates adjusted for age and calendar time. In all, 1270 women with affective or neurotic disorders developed breast cancer subsequent to the first admission as compared with the 1242 women expected, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.08). None of the hypothetical risk factors: type of diagnosis, age or calendar period at cohort entry, age at breast cancer, alcohol abuse, alcohol/drug abuse without further specification, total number of admissions, total length of admissions, or time from first admission showed a statistically significant effect on the relative risk of breast cancer. We found no support for the hypothesis that women admitted to a psychiatric department with an affective or a neurotic disorder subsequently have an increased risk of breast cancer.
In a nested case-control study, calcium status was assessed by measurements of serum total calcium, magnesium, phosphate, ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone, albumin, total CO2 (bicarbonate), and free fatty acids in relation to gallstone formation. The subjects were recruited from a cohort study (n = 4,581) on the epidemiology of gallstones in Denmark. The cohort was examined with ultrasonography twice, in 1983 and 1988; 63 subjects developed gallstones, and among those who did not, 122 were randomly selected as controls. Subjects with gallstones had significantly increased serum concentrations of total calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as compared with normal subjects. The difference was only observed in women. Age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking did not influence the results when included as covariables in a logistic regression analysis. Multivariate analysis showed increased concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and parathyroid hormone to be significantly associated with gallstone disease in women. No significant association was observed between gallstone disease and serum variables in men.