It is unclear whether age at menarche is an independent determinant of future cardiovascular risk.
We aimed to determine whether menarcheal age is an independent predictor of body mass index (BMI) and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and adulthood.
We examined the associations of menarcheal age with BMI (in kg/m(2)) and other cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and adulthood in a population-based sample of 794 female adolescents aged 9-18 y at baseline. Their age at first menstruation was requested at baseline and again 3 and 6 y later. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed at baseline and at age 30-39 y.
A 1-y decrease in menarcheal age was associated with 0.81 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.08) higher adult BMI as well as greater waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, elevated systolic blood pressure, higher insulin resistance, and greater risk of metabolic syndrome (P
Associations between body mass index (BMI) and attempted (nonfatal) suicide have recently been reported. However, the few existing studies are relatively small in scale, the majority cross-sectional, and results contradictory. The authors have explored BMI-attempted suicide associations in a large cohort of 1,133,019 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1976, with BMI measured in early adulthood. During a mean follow-up of 23.9 years, a total of 18,277 (1.6%) men had at least 1 hospital admission for attempted suicide. After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a stepwise, linear decrease in attempted suicide with increasing BMI across the full BMI range (per standard deviation increase in BMI, hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.94). Analyses excluding men with depression at baseline were essentially identical to those based on the complete cohort. In men free from depression at baseline, controlling for subsequent depression slightly attenuated the raised risk of attempted suicide, particularly in lower weight men. This study suggests that lower weight men have an increased risk of attempted suicide and that associations may extend into the "normal" BMI range.
RefSource: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 15;172(8):900-4; discussion 905-6
Studies have suggested both adverse and protective associations of obesity with depressive symptoms. We examined the contribution of environmental and heritable factors in this association. Participants were same-sex twin pairs from two population-based twin cohort studies, the Older Finnish Twin Cohort (n = 8,215; mean age = 44.1) and the US Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS; n = 1,105; mean age = 45.1). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI; Finnish Twin Cohort), and by negative and positive affect scales (MIDUS). In the Finnish Twin Cohort, higher BMI was associated with higher depressive symptoms in monozygotic (MZ) twins (B = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.0) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (B = 1.17, 0.5, 1.9) with BMI >22. This association was observed in within-pair analysis in DZ twins (B = 1.47, CI = 0.4, 2.6) but not in within-pair analysis of MZ twins (B = 0.03, CI = -1.9, 2.0). Consistent with the latter result, a bivariate genetic model indicated that the association between higher BMI and higher depressive symptoms was largely mediated by genetic factors. The results of twin-pair analysis and bivariate genetic model were replicated in the MIDUS sample. These findings suggest an association between obesity and higher depressive symptoms, which is largely explained by shared heritable biological mechanisms.
Body weight is associated with reproduction and related behaviors, but it is unknown whether it has significance for fertility differences in the general population. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI; kg/m) predicted the number of children in adulthood 21 years later.
The participants were 1298 Finnish women and men (ages 12, 15, and 18 years at baseline) followed in a prospective population-based cohort study (the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns) from year 1980 to 2001.
There was an inverted J-shaped association between BMI and the number of children, such that underweight adolescents had 10-16% fewer children in adulthood, overweight adolescents 4-8% fewer, and obese adolescents 32-38% fewer than individuals with normal adolescent weight. This association was similar in women and men, and independent of age, education, urbanicity of residence, and timing of menarche (in women). Adolescents with low or high BMI were less likely to have lived with a partner in adulthood, which partly accounted for their decreased number of children. The influence of adolescent BMI was independent of adulthood BMI in women but not in men. Age at menarche also predicted the number of children, such that women with early or late menarche had more children than those with average age at menarche.
Underweight and especially obesity may have a negative impact on fertility in the general population. The increasing prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents may represent a concern for future reproductive health.
Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics.
A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w-3, w-2, w-1), and one to three times after (w+1, w+2, w+3) retirement.
During the 4-year retirement transition (w+1, vs. w-1) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18?kg/m2, 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14?kg/m2, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31?kg/m2, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition.
In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
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Work disability affects quality of life, earnings, and opportunities to contribute to society. Work characteristics, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors have been associated with the risk of work disability, but few multifactorial algorithms exist to identify individuals at risk of future work disability. We developed and validated a parsimonious multifactorial score for the prediction of work disability using individual-level data from 65,775 public-sector employees (development cohort) and 13,527 employed adults from a general population sample (validation cohort), both linked to records of work disability. Candidate predictors for work disability included sociodemographic (3 items), health status and lifestyle (38 items), and work-related (43 items) variables. A parsimonious model, explaining?>?99% of the variance of the full model, comprised 8 predictors: age, self-rated health, number of sickness absences in previous year, socioeconomic position, chronic illnesses, sleep problems, body mass index, and smoking. Discriminative ability of a score including these predictors was high: C-index 0.84 in the development and 0.83 in the validation cohort. The corresponding C-indices for a score constructed from work-related predictors (age, sex, socioeconomic position, job strain) were 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. It is possible to identify reliably individuals at high risk of work disability by using a rapidly-administered prediction score.
ErratumIn: Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 16;8(1):17224 PMID 30442992
We examined whether preemployment influences confounded the association between job strain and atherosclerosis. We assessed biological, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors of coronary heart disease at 12 to 18 years of age and job strain and carotid artery intima-media thickness at 33 to 39 years of age for a cohort of 358 men. Adolescent risk factors predicted adult intima-media thickness but had little effect on the dose-response relation between greater job strain and greater intima-media thickness. Pre-employment influences did not confound the association between job strain and atherosclerosis.
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Studies have found an association between low socioeconomic position in childhood and high adult blood pressure. It is unclear whether this association is explained by a pathway directly linking disadvantage to elevated blood pressure in childhood and adolescence, which then tracks into adulthood. We assessed parental socioeconomic position and systolic blood pressure in 1807 children and adolescents ages 3 to 18 years at baseline. Adult systolic blood pressure was measured 21 years later at ages 24 to 39 years. There was strong tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood. Lower parental socioeconomic position was associated with higher blood pressure in childhood, adolescence (P
Environmental factors may affect adolescents' eating habits and thereby body weight. However, the contribution of school neighbourhood environment is poorly understood. This study examined the association between proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store to school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight.
Participants were 23 182 adolescents (mean age 15 years) who responded to a classroom survey in 181 lower secondary schools in Finland (2008-09). School location was linked to data on distance from school to the nearest fast-food outlet or grocery store (=100 m, 101-500 m, >500 m) using global positioning system-coordinate databases. Outcomes were irregular eating habits (skipping breakfast, skipping free school lunch, skipping free school-provided snacks and not having family dinners), the accumulation of these habits and overweight, including obesity (body mass index = 25 kg/m(2)).
Thirteen percentage of the participants were overweight. Having a fast-food outlet or grocery store near school was associated with skipping often breakfast and free school lunch, and the accumulation of irregular eating habits. The proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store was associated with a 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.52) risk of overweight among adolescent with a low socioeconomic status but not among those with higher socioeconomic status. This association was partly (12%) explained by the accumulation of irregular eating habits.
Among adolescents from low socioeconomic background, the presence of fast-food retailers near schools is associated with accumulation of irregular eating habits and greater overweight. These findings suggest that obesogenic school neighbourhoods may contribute to social inequalities in overweight.
To longitudinally examine associations between proximity of urban green or blue areas and BMI.
The study population consisted of the Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to surveys in 2000 and 2008 and lived in an urban area; 15,621 of them did not move residence (nonmovers) during the follow-up, and 9696 did (movers). The associations for objectively measured distance and change in distance to blue area and usable green area with self-reported BMI were assessed (normal weight/overweight/obese).
Among the nonmovers, living >750 versus 250m) increased the odds of obesity (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.08-2.06).
These longitudinal population level findings suggest that living far from usable green areas or waterfront in urban areas increases the risk of overweight.