To investigate whether changes in objective working hour characteristics are associated with parallel changes in work-life conflict (WLC) among hospital employees.
Survey responses from three waves of the Finnish Public Sector study (2008, 2012 and 2015) were combined with payroll data from 91 days preceding the surveys (n=2 482, 93% women). Time-dependent fixed effects regression models adjusted for marital status, number of children and stressfulness of the life situation were used to investigate whether changes in working hour characteristics were associated with parallel change in WLC. The working hour characteristics were dichotomised with cut-points in less than or greater than 10%?or less than or greater than25%?occurrence) and WLC to frequent versus seldom/none.
Change in proportion of evening and night shifts and weekend work was significantly associated with parallel change in WLC (adjusted OR 2.19, 95%?CI 1.62 to 2.96; OR 1.71, 95%?CI 1.21 to 2.44; OR 1.63, 95%?CI 1.194 to 2.22, respectively). Similarly, increase or decrease in proportion of quick returns (adjusted OR 1.45, 95%?CI 1.10 to 1.89) and long work weeks (adjusted OR 1.26, 95%?CI 1.04 to 1.52) was associated with parallel increase or decrease in WLC. Single days off and very long work weeks showed no association with WLC.
Changes in unsocial working hour characteristics, especially in connection with evening shifts, are consistently associated with parallel changes in WLC.
Social support is assumed to protect mental health, but it is not known whether low social support at work increases the risk of common mental disorders or antidepressant medication. This study, carried out in Finland 2000-2003, examined the associations of low social support at work and in private life with DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication.
Social support was measured with self-assessment scales in a cohort of 3429 employees from a population-based health survey. A 12-month prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which encompasses operationalized criteria for DSM-IV diagnoses and allows the estimation of DSM-IV diagnoses for major mental disorders. Purchases of antidepressants in a 3-year follow-up were collected from the nationwide pharmaceutical register of the Social Insurance Institution.
Low social support at work and in private life was associated with a 12-month prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.48-2.82 for supervisory support, 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.59 for colleague support, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2.36 for private life support). Work-related social support was also associated with subsequent antidepressant use.
This study used a cross-sectional analysis of DSM-IV mental disorders. The use of purchases of antidepressant as an indicator of depressive and anxiety disorders can result in an underestimation of the actual mental disorders.
Low social support, both at work and in private life, is associated with DSM-IV mental disorders, and low social support at work is also a risk factor for mental disorders treated with antidepressant medication.
This study examined whether active on-call hours and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors are associated with physicians' turnover intentions and distress.
Cross-sectional survey data on randomly selected female (N=1571) and male (N=1081) physicians, aged 25 to 65 years, from The Finnish Health Care Professionals Study were used. The outcome measures were turnover intentions and distress (general health questionnaire). Smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and low physical activity were assessed as lifestyle risk factors. Analyses of covariance were used to analyze the data.
After adjustment for gender, age, employment sector, and job satisfaction, the analyses showed that the physicians who had been on active call more than 40 hours per month reported more distress than the group not on call (P=0.046). The physicians with two or more risk factors also had more distress (P
To examine the potential moderating role of DRD2 polymorphism (rs1800497) in the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among young adults. Although stressful life events, such as divorce, unemployment, and serious illness in the family, are generally associated with negative health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, there are large individual differences in coping with such events. A number of studies suggest that variants in dopamine receptor genes, such as DRD2, are associated with depression but it is unclear if such variants also modify the association between life events and depression.
We analyzed the prospective data on life events and depressive symptoms in 1992 and 2001 related to 1611 young adults (672 men and 939 women, aged 15-30 years at baseline) who participated in the ongoing population-based cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.
Occurrence of stressful life events was associated with increased risk of subsequent depressive symptoms in men and women. However, this association was seen only among those who carried A2/A2 (n = 872) genotype. No such association was detected in participants carrying A1/A1 or A1/A2 (n = 486) genotype.
DRD2 polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and those who carry A2/A2 DRD2 genotypes may be more vulnerable than others.
This study examined whether indicators of poor health and health risk behaviors among hospital staff differ between the ward specialties.
Across 21 hospitals in Finland, 8003 employees (mean age 42 years, 87% women, 86% nurses) working in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, intensive care, and psychiatry responded to a baseline survey on health and health risk behaviors (response rate 70%). Responses were linked to records of sickness absence and medication over the following 12 months.
Psychiatric staff had higher odds of smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.14-3.12], high alcohol use (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.21-1.99), physical inactivity (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.53), chronic physical disease (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36), current or past mental disorders (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.50-2.17), and co-occurring poor health indicators (OR 2.65, 95% CI 2.08-3.37) as compared to those working in other specialties. They also had higher odds of sickness absence due to mental disorders (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.92) and depression (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.55) at follow-up after adjustment for baseline health and covariates. Personnel in surgery had the lowest probability of morbidity. No major differences between specialties were found in the use of psychotropic medication.
The prevalence of hospital employees with an adverse health risk profile is higher in psychiatric wards than other specialties.
This epidemiological cohort study, based on Finnish public sector data, investigated the associations between objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict in day and shift work. The comprehensive data of hospital workers (n = 8 931, 92% women, average age 45 years), consisted of survey responses from 2012, linked with the payroll data of working hour characteristics from 91 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between working hour characteristics and experiencing work-life conflict often/very often. The analyses were adjusted for age (50 years), sex, level of education, marital status, number of small (0-6 years) and school-aged (7-18 years) children, and the overall stressfulness of the life situation. We also conducted stratified analyses of age and sex on the basis of significant interactions. Difficulties in combining work and life were more often associated with shift work without night shifts and shift work with night shifts than with day work (41% and 34 versus 27%; OR for shift work with night shifts 1.78, 95% CI 1.59-2.00, OR for shift work without night shifts 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60). A high proportion (> 25%) of long (> 40h, (OR 1.26, 95% 1.14-1.39) and very long (> 48h, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49) weekly working hours were associated with work-life conflict, and in the stratified analysis, the latter was also true among women (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89). Of the unsocial working hour characteristics, a relatively large amount (> 10% of all shifts) of evening (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72) and night shifts (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.32-1.61), a high proportion (> 25% of all shifts) of quick returns ( 25% of all days off) was associated with work-life conflict among men (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.11-3.25), but not in the whole sample. When the two types of shift work were analyzed separately, shift work without night shifts and very long work weeks had higher odds (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.20-1.80) of work-life conflict than shift work with night shifts. Conversely, weekend work and evening shifts had higher odds of work-life conflict among shift workers with night shifts (OR 1.74, 95% 1.55-1.96; (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.40-1.77) than among those without night shifts. To conclude, this study shows that shift workers with and without night shifts more often have difficulties combining work and life than day workers. Several unsocial working hour characteristics, including long work weeks, evening and night shifts, weekend work, and quick returns, are associated with work-life conflict.
The authors prospectively examined changes in health after a major life event (death or onset of severe illness in family) among 5,007 employees (mean age=44.8 years) whose optimism and pessimism levels were assessed in 1997 and major life events in 2000. Health was indicated by sickness absence days during a period covering 36 months prior to the event and 18 months after the event. Increase in sick days after the event was smaller and returned to the prevent level more quickly among highly optimistic individuals than among their counterparts with low optimism. Parallel changes were not observed in relation to pessimism. These findings suggest that optimism may reduce the risk of health problems and may be related to a faster recovery after a major life event.
We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education schools increases the risk of sickness absence among teachers and whether this risk is dependent on the pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), an indicator of teacher resources at school.
We obtained register data on 8089 teachers working in 404 schools in 10 municipalities in Finland during the school year 2004-2005. We used multilevel multinomial regression models to examine the risk of teachers' short- and long-term sickness absence in relation to the percentage of SEN pupils and the PTR at school. We tested the equality of trends in groups with high and low PTR using PTR × SEN interaction term.
After adjustment for teacher and school characteristics, the risk for long-term absences was higher among teachers at schools with a high percentage of SEN pupils than among teachers at schools with a low percentage of SEN pupils [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-1.8). This was also the case for short-term absences (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7). In analyses stratified by the PTR levels, the association between the percentage of SEN pupils and long-term absences was 15% higher among teachers with a high PTR than among those with a low PTR (P for interaction=0.10).
Teachers' sickness absenteeism seems to increase with a higher percentage of SEN pupils, especially when the PTR is high. Teacher resources at schools that have a high percentage of SEN pupils should be well maintained to ensure the health of teachers.
To assess the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and oral health, and the role of oral health-related behaviours in this relationship.
This is a cross-sectional study of 5401 dentate adults who participated in the nationally representative Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The survey gathered information on SOC, demographic characteristics, education, income, pre-existing diabetes, daily smoking, dental attendance, toothbrushing frequency and sugar intake frequency. Oral health was assessed through clinical outcomes, such as number of teeth, number of decayed teeth and extent of periodontal pockets and perceived oral health.
A strong SOC was related to having more teeth, fewer decayed teeth, lower extent of periodontal pockets and good perceived oral health after adjustment for confounders, such as demographic and socioeconomic factors (all p0.003). These associations were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for potential mediators (oral health-related behaviours), except for the association of SOC with the extent of periodontal pockets, which was fully accounted for by pre-existing diabetes, oral health-related behaviours and dental plaque (p=0.549).
SOC is positively associated with various aspects of adult oral health, in part because of the better oral health-related behaviours among people with a strong SOC.
Most prospective studies on the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and mental health have been conducted using subjective health indicators and short-term follow-ups. The objective of this prospective occupational cohort study was to examine whether a strong sense of coherence is a protective factor against psychiatric disorders over a long period of time.
The study was conducted in a multinational forest industry corporation with domicile in Finland. Participants were 8029 Finnish industrial employees aged 18-65 at baseline (1986). Questionnaire survey data on SOC and other factors were collected at baseline; records of hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt were derived from the National Hospital Discharge Register, while records of deaths due to suicide were derived from the National Death Registry up until 2006.
During the 19-year follow-up, 406 participants with no prior admissions were admitted to hospital for psychiatric disorders (n=351) or suicide attempt (n=25) or committed a suicide (n=30). A strong SOC was associated with about 40% decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. This association was not accounted for by mental health-related baseline characteristics, such as sex, age, marital status, education, occupational status, work environment, risk behaviours or psychological distress. The result was replicated in a subcohort of participants who did not report an elevated level of psychological distress at baseline (hazard ratio=0.59, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.86).
A strong SOC is associated with reduced risk of psychiatric disorders during a long time period.