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Are changes in objective working hour characteristics associated with changes in work-life conflict among hospital employees working shifts? A 7-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302200
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2018 06; 75(6):407-411
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Kati Karhula
Aki Koskinen
Anneli Ojajärvi
Annina Ropponen
Sampsa Puttonen
Mika Kivimäki
Mikko Härmä
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2018 06; 75(6):407-411
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Conflict (Psychology)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Stress - epidemiology - psychology
Personnel, Hospital
Public Sector
Shift Work Schedule - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance - psychology
Work-Life Balance
Workforce
Workload - psychology
Abstract
To investigate whether changes in objective working hour characteristics are associated with parallel changes in work-life conflict (WLC) among hospital employees.
Survey responses from three waves of the Finnish Public Sector study (2008, 2012 and 2015) were combined with payroll data from 91 days preceding the surveys (n=2 482, 93% women). Time-dependent fixed effects regression models adjusted for marital status, number of children and stressfulness of the life situation were used to investigate whether changes in working hour characteristics were associated with parallel change in WLC. The working hour characteristics were dichotomised with cut-points in less than or greater than 10%?or less than or greater than25%?occurrence) and WLC to frequent versus seldom/none.
Change in proportion of evening and night shifts and weekend work was significantly associated with parallel change in WLC (adjusted OR 2.19, 95%?CI 1.62 to 2.96; OR 1.71, 95%?CI 1.21 to 2.44; OR 1.63, 95%?CI 1.194 to 2.22, respectively). Similarly, increase or decrease in proportion of quick returns (adjusted OR 1.45, 95%?CI 1.10 to 1.89) and long work weeks (adjusted OR 1.26, 95%?CI 1.04 to 1.52) was associated with parallel increase or decrease in WLC. Single days off and very long work weeks showed no association with WLC.
Changes in unsocial working hour characteristics, especially in connection with evening shifts, are consistently associated with parallel changes in WLC.
PubMed ID
29367350 View in PubMed
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The association of social support at work and in private life with mental health and antidepressant use: the Health 2000 Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155538
Source
J Affect Disord. 2009 May;115(1-2):36-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Marjo Sinokki
Katariina Hinkka
Kirsi Ahola
Seppo Koskinen
Mika Kivimäki
Teija Honkonen
Pauli Puukka
Timo Klaukka
Jouko Lönnqvist
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkäisenkatu 14-18 B, FI-20520 Turku, Finland. marjo.sinokki@utu.fi
Source
J Affect Disord. 2009 May;115(1-2):36-45
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Social Adjustment
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Statistics as Topic
Abstract
Social support is assumed to protect mental health, but it is not known whether low social support at work increases the risk of common mental disorders or antidepressant medication. This study, carried out in Finland 2000-2003, examined the associations of low social support at work and in private life with DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication.
Social support was measured with self-assessment scales in a cohort of 3429 employees from a population-based health survey. A 12-month prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which encompasses operationalized criteria for DSM-IV diagnoses and allows the estimation of DSM-IV diagnoses for major mental disorders. Purchases of antidepressants in a 3-year follow-up were collected from the nationwide pharmaceutical register of the Social Insurance Institution.
Low social support at work and in private life was associated with a 12-month prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.48-2.82 for supervisory support, 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.59 for colleague support, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2.36 for private life support). Work-related social support was also associated with subsequent antidepressant use.
This study used a cross-sectional analysis of DSM-IV mental disorders. The use of purchases of antidepressant as an indicator of depressive and anxiety disorders can result in an underestimation of the actual mental disorders.
Low social support, both at work and in private life, is associated with DSM-IV mental disorders, and low social support at work is also a risk factor for mental disorders treated with antidepressant medication.
PubMed ID
18722019 View in PubMed
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Effects of active on-call hours on physicians' turnover intentions and well-being.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154746
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Oct;34(5):356-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2008
Author
Tarja Heponiemi
Anne Kouvonen
Jukka Vänskä
Hannu Halila
Timo Sinervo
Mika Kivimäki
Marko Elovainio
Author Affiliation
National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES), Helsinki, Finland. tarja.heponiemi@stakes.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Oct;34(5):356-63
Date
Oct-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Personnel Turnover - statistics & numerical data
Physicians - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Psychological Tests
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - complications - psychology
Time Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance - psychology
Abstract
This study examined whether active on-call hours and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors are associated with physicians' turnover intentions and distress.
Cross-sectional survey data on randomly selected female (N=1571) and male (N=1081) physicians, aged 25 to 65 years, from The Finnish Health Care Professionals Study were used. The outcome measures were turnover intentions and distress (general health questionnaire). Smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and low physical activity were assessed as lifestyle risk factors. Analyses of covariance were used to analyze the data.
After adjustment for gender, age, employment sector, and job satisfaction, the analyses showed that the physicians who had been on active call more than 40 hours per month reported more distress than the group not on call (P=0.046). The physicians with two or more risk factors also had more distress (P
PubMed ID
18853067 View in PubMed
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Genetic variants in the DRD2 gene moderate the relationship between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in adults: cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162862
Source
Psychosom Med. 2007 Jun;69(5):391-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Marko Elovainio
Markus Jokela
Mika Kivimäki
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Terho Lehtimäki
Nina Airla
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Psychosom Med. 2007 Jun;69(5):391-5
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - genetics - psychology
Child
Child, Preschool
Depression - genetics - psychology
Epidemiologic Studies
Female
Finland
Genotype
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prospective Studies
Receptors, Dopamine D2 - genetics
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
To examine the potential moderating role of DRD2 polymorphism (rs1800497) in the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among young adults. Although stressful life events, such as divorce, unemployment, and serious illness in the family, are generally associated with negative health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, there are large individual differences in coping with such events. A number of studies suggest that variants in dopamine receptor genes, such as DRD2, are associated with depression but it is unclear if such variants also modify the association between life events and depression.
We analyzed the prospective data on life events and depressive symptoms in 1992 and 2001 related to 1611 young adults (672 men and 939 women, aged 15-30 years at baseline) who participated in the ongoing population-based cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.
Occurrence of stressful life events was associated with increased risk of subsequent depressive symptoms in men and women. However, this association was seen only among those who carried A2/A2 (n = 872) genotype. No such association was detected in participants carrying A1/A1 or A1/A2 (n = 486) genotype.
DRD2 polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and those who carry A2/A2 DRD2 genotypes may be more vulnerable than others.
PubMed ID
17585060 View in PubMed
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Health risk behaviors and morbidity among hospital staff--comparison across hospital ward medical specialties in a study of 21 Finnish hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128721
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):228-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Marianna Virtanen
Jussi Vahtera
G David Batty
Katinka Tuisku
Tuula Oksanen
Marko Elovainio
Kirsi Ahola
Jaana Pentti
Paula Salo
Anne-Marie Vartti
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. marianna.virtanen@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):228-37
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Confidence Intervals
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Health Personnel - psychology
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Medical Staff, Hospital - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Medicine - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological
Young Adult
Abstract
This study examined whether indicators of poor health and health risk behaviors among hospital staff differ between the ward specialties.
Across 21 hospitals in Finland, 8003 employees (mean age 42 years, 87% women, 86% nurses) working in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, intensive care, and psychiatry responded to a baseline survey on health and health risk behaviors (response rate 70%). Responses were linked to records of sickness absence and medication over the following 12 months.
Psychiatric staff had higher odds of smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.14-3.12], high alcohol use (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.21-1.99), physical inactivity (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.53), chronic physical disease (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36), current or past mental disorders (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.50-2.17), and co-occurring poor health indicators (OR 2.65, 95% CI 2.08-3.37) as compared to those working in other specialties. They also had higher odds of sickness absence due to mental disorders (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.92) and depression (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.55) at follow-up after adjustment for baseline health and covariates. Personnel in surgery had the lowest probability of morbidity. No major differences between specialties were found in the use of psychotropic medication.
The prevalence of hospital employees with an adverse health risk profile is higher in psychiatric wards than other specialties.
PubMed ID
22173213 View in PubMed
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Objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict among hospital employees in the Finnish public sector study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292257
Source
Chronobiol Int. 2017; 34(7):876-885
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2017
Author
Kati Karhula
Sampsa Puttonen
Annina Ropponen
Aki Koskinen
Anneli Ojajärvi
Mika Kivimäki
Mikko Härmä
Author Affiliation
a Work Ability and Work Careers, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health , Helsinki , Finland.
Source
Chronobiol Int. 2017; 34(7):876-885
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
After-Hours Care
Conflict (Psychology)
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitals, Public - manpower
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Stress - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - psychology
Odds Ratio
Personnel, Hospital
Public Sector - manpower
Risk factors
Shift Work Schedule - psychology
Time Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance - psychology
Work-Life Balance
Workload - psychology
Abstract
This epidemiological cohort study, based on Finnish public sector data, investigated the associations between objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict in day and shift work. The comprehensive data of hospital workers (n = 8 931, 92% women, average age 45 years), consisted of survey responses from 2012, linked with the payroll data of working hour characteristics from 91 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between working hour characteristics and experiencing work-life conflict often/very often. The analyses were adjusted for age (50 years), sex, level of education, marital status, number of small (0-6 years) and school-aged (7-18 years) children, and the overall stressfulness of the life situation. We also conducted stratified analyses of age and sex on the basis of significant interactions. Difficulties in combining work and life were more often associated with shift work without night shifts and shift work with night shifts than with day work (41% and 34 versus 27%; OR for shift work with night shifts 1.78, 95% CI 1.59-2.00, OR for shift work without night shifts 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60). A high proportion (> 25%) of long (> 40h, (OR 1.26, 95% 1.14-1.39) and very long (> 48h, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49) weekly working hours were associated with work-life conflict, and in the stratified analysis, the latter was also true among women (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89). Of the unsocial working hour characteristics, a relatively large amount (> 10% of all shifts) of evening (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72) and night shifts (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.32-1.61), a high proportion (> 25% of all shifts) of quick returns ( 25% of all days off) was associated with work-life conflict among men (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.11-3.25), but not in the whole sample. When the two types of shift work were analyzed separately, shift work without night shifts and very long work weeks had higher odds (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.20-1.80) of work-life conflict than shift work with night shifts. Conversely, weekend work and evening shifts had higher odds of work-life conflict among shift workers with night shifts (OR 1.74, 95% 1.55-1.96; (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.40-1.77) than among those without night shifts. To conclude, this study shows that shift workers with and without night shifts more often have difficulties combining work and life than day workers. Several unsocial working hour characteristics, including long work weeks, evening and night shifts, weekend work, and quick returns, are associated with work-life conflict.
PubMed ID
28590149 View in PubMed
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Optimism and pessimism as predictors of change in health after death or onset of severe illness in family.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173632
Source
Health Psychol. 2005 Jul;24(4):413-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Marko Elovainio
Hans Helenius
Archana Singh-Manoux
Jaana Pentti
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. mika.kivimaki@ttl.fi
Source
Health Psychol. 2005 Jul;24(4):413-21
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Family
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
The authors prospectively examined changes in health after a major life event (death or onset of severe illness in family) among 5,007 employees (mean age=44.8 years) whose optimism and pessimism levels were assessed in 1997 and major life events in 2000. Health was indicated by sickness absence days during a period covering 36 months prior to the event and 18 months after the event. Increase in sick days after the event was smaller and returned to the prevent level more quickly among highly optimistic individuals than among their counterparts with low optimism. Parallel changes were not observed in relation to pessimism. These findings suggest that optimism may reduce the risk of health problems and may be related to a faster recovery after a major life event.
PubMed ID
16045377 View in PubMed
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Pupils with special educational needs in basic education schools and teachers' sickness absences--a register-linkage study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126883
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):209-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Jenni Ervasti
Mika Kivimäki
Ichiro Kawachi
S V Subramanian
Jaana Pentti
Kirsi Ahola
Tuula Oksanen
Tiina Pohjonen
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Centre of Expertise for Work Organizations, Helsinki, Finland. jenni.ervasti@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):209-17
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Confidence Intervals
Education, Special - statistics & numerical data
Faculty - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Needs Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Stress, Psychological - complications - psychology
Students - statistics & numerical data
Teaching - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education schools increases the risk of sickness absence among teachers and whether this risk is dependent on the pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), an indicator of teacher resources at school.
We obtained register data on 8089 teachers working in 404 schools in 10 municipalities in Finland during the school year 2004-2005. We used multilevel multinomial regression models to examine the risk of teachers' short- and long-term sickness absence in relation to the percentage of SEN pupils and the PTR at school. We tested the equality of trends in groups with high and low PTR using PTR × SEN interaction term.
After adjustment for teacher and school characteristics, the risk for long-term absences was higher among teachers at schools with a high percentage of SEN pupils than among teachers at schools with a low percentage of SEN pupils [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-1.8). This was also the case for short-term absences (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7). In analyses stratified by the PTR levels, the association between the percentage of SEN pupils and long-term absences was 15% higher among teachers with a high PTR than among those with a low PTR (P for interaction=0.10).
Teachers' sickness absenteeism seems to increase with a higher percentage of SEN pupils, especially when the PTR is high. Teacher resources at schools that have a high percentage of SEN pupils should be well maintained to ensure the health of teachers.
PubMed ID
22344461 View in PubMed
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Sense of coherence and oral health in dentate adults: findings from the Finnish Health 2000 survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141837
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2010 Nov;37(11):981-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Eduardo Bernabé
Richard G Watt
Aubrey Sheiham
Anna L Suominen-Taipale
Antti Uutela
Miira M Vehkalahti
Matti Knuuttila
Mika Kivimäki
Georgios Tsakos
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. e.bernabe@qmul.ac.uk
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2010 Nov;37(11):981-7
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cluster analysis
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Dental Care - utilization
Dental Caries - psychology
Dental Health Surveys
Dental Plaque - psychology
Diet, Cariogenic
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Oral Health
Periodontal Pocket - psychology
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Toothbrushing - utilization
Abstract
To assess the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and oral health, and the role of oral health-related behaviours in this relationship.
This is a cross-sectional study of 5401 dentate adults who participated in the nationally representative Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The survey gathered information on SOC, demographic characteristics, education, income, pre-existing diabetes, daily smoking, dental attendance, toothbrushing frequency and sugar intake frequency. Oral health was assessed through clinical outcomes, such as number of teeth, number of decayed teeth and extent of periodontal pockets and perceived oral health.
A strong SOC was related to having more teeth, fewer decayed teeth, lower extent of periodontal pockets and good perceived oral health after adjustment for confounders, such as demographic and socioeconomic factors (all p0.003). These associations were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for potential mediators (oral health-related behaviours), except for the association of SOC with the extent of periodontal pockets, which was fully accounted for by pre-existing diabetes, oral health-related behaviours and dental plaque (p=0.549).
SOC is positively associated with various aspects of adult oral health, in part because of the better oral health-related behaviours among people with a strong SOC.
PubMed ID
20670340 View in PubMed
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Sense of coherence and psychiatric morbidity: a 19-year register-based prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148928
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010 Mar;64(3):255-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Anne M Kouvonen
Ari Väänänen
Jussi Vahtera
Tarja Heponiemi
Aki Koskinen
Sara J Cox
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010 Mar;64(3):255-61
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Extraction and Processing Industry
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Industry
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Mental health
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Trees
Young Adult
Abstract
Most prospective studies on the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and mental health have been conducted using subjective health indicators and short-term follow-ups. The objective of this prospective occupational cohort study was to examine whether a strong sense of coherence is a protective factor against psychiatric disorders over a long period of time.
The study was conducted in a multinational forest industry corporation with domicile in Finland. Participants were 8029 Finnish industrial employees aged 18-65 at baseline (1986). Questionnaire survey data on SOC and other factors were collected at baseline; records of hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt were derived from the National Hospital Discharge Register, while records of deaths due to suicide were derived from the National Death Registry up until 2006.
During the 19-year follow-up, 406 participants with no prior admissions were admitted to hospital for psychiatric disorders (n=351) or suicide attempt (n=25) or committed a suicide (n=30). A strong SOC was associated with about 40% decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. This association was not accounted for by mental health-related baseline characteristics, such as sex, age, marital status, education, occupational status, work environment, risk behaviours or psychological distress. The result was replicated in a subcohort of participants who did not report an elevated level of psychological distress at baseline (hazard ratio=0.59, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.86).
A strong SOC is associated with reduced risk of psychiatric disorders during a long time period.
PubMed ID
19706620 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.