We used genome wide expression (GWE) data of circulating blood cells and pathway analysis to investigate the inflammatory and other molecular pathways that may be associated with long-standing depressive symptoms. Participants were 607 women and 316 men (mean age 42 years) from the Young Finns Study who participated in three consecutive study phases in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Using Gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA) we focused our analyses to pathways (available in MSigDB database) that are likely to affect immunological and inflammatory processes. GSEA were performed for blood cell GWE data in 2012. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified 21-item Beck Depression Inventory in each of the three study phases. Participants who scored in the top quartile of depressive symptoms in each of the three measurement points (n = 191) differed from other participants (n = 732) in several gene-set pathways related to inflammatory processes or immune-inflammatory signaling including interleukin (IL-1) pathway, and pathways related to various immuno-inflammatory processes, such as toll-like, the NEF protein, the nuclear factor kB, the kinase AKT and the mature B cell antigen receptor pathway (false discovery rates, FDRs
We aimed to characterize the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) or IDO-induced tryptophan degradation-dependent pathways, which may lead to suppression of T cells and possible protection against atherosclerosis.
Expression of IDO and IDO-related pathway components was analyzed in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 24) and in non-atherosclerotic arteries (n = 6). Up-regulation of IDO and genes related to the IDO pathway was found to be pronounced in atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated IDO protein in the atheromatous core and co-distribution with monocyte-macrophages (CD68-positive cells). In gene-set enrichment analysis, the IDO pathway revealed a significant (false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.07) regulatory T cell, fork-head box protein 3 (FoxP3)-initiated CD28-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS)-driven pathway leading to activation of IDO expression in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Expression of these IDO pathway genes varied between 2.1- and 16.8-fold as compared to control tissues (P
Laboratory of Atherosclerosis Genetics, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Tampere University Hospital and Department of Clinical Chemistry, Medical School, University of Tampere, Finland. email@example.com
Previously, we scanned all 23,000 human genes for differential expression between normal and atherosclerotic tissues and found the involvement of ADAM8.
We investigated the expression of ADAM8 mRNA and protein level in human atherosclerotic tissues and non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries as well as the association of ADAM8 2662 T/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and with the risk of fatal myocardial infarction.
ADAM8 mRNA was up-regulated in carotid, aortic, and femoral atherosclerotic plaques (n=24) when compared with non-atherosclerotic arteries. ADAM8 protein expression was increased in advanced atherosclerotic plaques as compared to control vessels wherein it was localized to macrophages and smooth muscle cells The G allele carriers of the ADAM8 2662 T/G SNP had significantly larger areas of fibrotic, calcified, and complicated plaques in coronary arteries (P=0.027, P=0.011, and P=0.011, respectively) and significantly higher occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) (P=0.004) and fatal pre-hospital MI (P=0.003) than did the TT homozygotes.
ADAM8 is a promising candidate to be involved in atherosclerosis, and its 2662 T/G allelic variant significantly associates with advanced atherosclerotic lesion areas and MI.
Adiponectin may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relation of adiponectin on early functional and structural markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in a large population-based cohort of young men and women.
We measured serum adiponectin using radioimmunoassay in 2,147 young adults (ages 24-39 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects had ultrasound data on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid artery elasticity (n = 2,139) and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (n = 1,996). In univariate analysis, adiponectin was inversely associated with IMT (r = -0.16, P
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels during different menstrual cycle phases in young adult women with or without oral contraceptive (OC) use.
The subjects (n=1079) originated from a large population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Finland. Plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), L-arginine, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were measured. The use of OCs and menstrual cycle phase were determined from a questionnaire.
In non-OC users, ADMA (P=0.017), L-arginine (P=0.002), and ADMA/SDMA ratio (P
The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of adolescence risk factors in predicting coronary artery calcium (CAC).
Elevated coronary heart disease risk factor levels in adolescence may predict subsequent CAC independently of change in risk factor levels from adolescence to adulthood.
CAC was assessed in 589 subjects 40 to 46 years of age from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Risk factor levels were measured in 1980 (12 to 18 years) and in 2007.
The prevalence of any CAC was 19.2% (27.9% in men and 12.2% in women). Age, levels of systolic blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adolescence, as well as systolic BP, total cholesterol, diastolic BP, and pack-years of smoking in adulthood were higher among subjects with CAC than those without CAC. Adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels predicted CAC in adulthood independently of 27-year changes in these risk factors. The multivariable odds ratios were 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.70; p=0.02) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.77; p=0.01), for 1-SD increase in adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP, respectively. Exposure to both of these risk factors in adolescence (defined as values at or above the age- and sex-specific 75th percentile) substantially increased the risk of CAC (multivariable odds ratio: 3.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.2; p=0.007]) between groups with no versus both risk factors.
Elevated adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels are independent predictors of adulthood CAC, indicating that adolescence risk factor levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease.
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1371-322981554
Laboratory of Atherosclerosis Genetics, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital and the Medical School at the University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Individuals suffering from ATH (adult-type hypolactasia), defined by the LCT (gene encoding lactase-phlorizin hydrolase) C/C(-13910) genotype (rs4988235), use less milk and dairy products and may have higher plasma HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and lower triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations than their counterparts without ATH. To investigate the effects of ATH status on the early markers of atherosclerosis, we examined its association with CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness), CAC (carotid artery compliance) and brachial artery FMD (flow-mediated dilation) in a young population-based cohort of otherwise healthy individuals. As part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, we performed CIMT, CAC and FMD analyses, LCT C/T(-13910) genotyping and risk factor determination in 2109 young subjects 24-39 years of age (45% males) at the time of the examination. The consumption of both milk and dairy products was lowest and the consumption of alcohol highest in subjects with the C/C(-13910) genotype (P
Several studies have shown that treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) does not meet the goals set in recommendations. The aim of this study was to investigate the adequacy of CHD drug treatment and secondary prevention measures, particularly with respect to age and gender biases, in a Finnish university hospital setting.
The participant pool consisted of patients in FINCAVAS (Finnish Cardiovascular Study), which is a cohort study recruiting consecutive patients performing a clinical exercise test at Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. 802 patients (581 men, 221 women) with a prior diagnosis of CHD recruited between October 2001 and December 2004 were included in the analysis.
Only roughly 12% of both men and women had an optimal risk factor profile. High blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia were more common in women than in men, whereas smoking was more frequent among men. Men used ACE inhibitors (32.9% vs 20.4%, respectively), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (80.8% vs 68.3%, respectively) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) [69.7% vs 58.8%, respectively] more frequently than women, but the frequency of use of these medications was also not at the recommended levels in men. Risk factor control is poorer in older than younger age groups.
CHD patients, particularly women, who performed an exercise stress test in a university hospital are suboptimally treated.
There is substantial epidemiological data suggesting a J- or U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and coronary events. However, some studies in experimental animals suggest that alcohol may increase atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to study whether alcohol consumption is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in young, healthy adults.
Alcohol consumption, carotid IMT and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in 2074 subjects, aged 24-39 years.
In subjects consuming none, >0 to or=4 units of alcohol per day, the respective carotid IMT values were 0.57+/-0.004, 0.59+/-0.003, 0.59+/-0.006, and 0.60+/-0.012 mm (mean+/-S.E.M., P
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.