A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
To examine the roles of child cognitions and parental feeding practices in explaining child intentions and behaviour regarding fruit and vegetable consumption.
Cross-sectional surveys among pre-adolescent children and their parents.
The child questionnaire included measures of fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitions regarding fruit and vegetable consumption as postulated by the Attitude-Social Influence-Self-Efficacy (ASE) model. The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding practices derived from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ).
In total, 963 parents and 796 students in grades 5 and 6 from eighteen schools in the south-western part of Norway participated.
A large portion of child intention to eat fruit and child fruit consumption was explained by child cognitions (29 % and 25 %, respectively). This also applied to child intention to eat vegetables and child vegetable consumption (42 % and 27 %, respectively). Parent-reported feeding practices added another 3 % to the variance explained for child intention to eat fruit and 4 % to the variance explained for child vegetable consumption.
The results from the present study supported the application of the ASE model for explaining the variance in child intentions to eat fruit and vegetables and in child consumption of fruit and vegetables. Furthermore, our findings indicated that some parental feeding practices do have an influence on child intentions and behaviour regarding fruit and vegetable consumption. However, the role of parental feeding practices, and the pathways between feeding practices and child eating intentions and behaviour, needs to be further investigated.
To describe the dietary composition of the New Nordic Diet (NND) and to compare it with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)/Danish Food-based Dietary Guidelines (DFDG) and with the average Danish diet.
Dietary components with clear health-promoting properties included in the DFDG were included in the NND in amounts at least equivalent to those prescribed by the DFDG. The quantities of the other dietary components in the NND were based on scientific arguments for their potential health-promoting properties together with considerations of acceptability, toxicological concerns, availability and the environment. Calculations were conducted for quantifying the dietary and nutrient composition of the NND.
The NND is characterized by a high content of fruits and vegetables (especially berries, cabbages, root vegetables and legumes), fresh herbs, potatoes, plants and mushrooms from the wild countryside, whole grains, nuts, fish and shellfish, seaweed, free-range livestock (including pigs and poultry) and game. Overall, the average daily intakes of macro- and micronutrients in the NND meet the NNR with small adjustments based on evidence of their health-promoting properties.
The NND is a prototype regional diet that takes palatability, health, food culture and the environment into consideration. Regionally appropriate healthy diets could be created on similar principles anywhere in the world.
To analyse (i) differences in beverage pattern among Norwegian children in 2001 and 2008; (ii) beverage intake related to gender, parental education and family composition; and (iii) potential disparities in time trends among the different groups.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, 6th and 7th grade pupils filled in a questionnaire about frequency of beverage intake (times/week) in 2001 and 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
In 2001 a total of 1488 and in 2008 1339 pupils participated.
Between 2001 and 2008, a decreased consumption frequency of juice (from 3·6 to 3·4 times/week, P = 0·012), lemonade (from 4·8 to 2·5 times/week, P
High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins.
Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part of a post hoc analysis of data acquired from a 26-week controlled trial. We used the fractional phosphorus excretion as a measurement of phosphorus absorption.
Mean baseline fractional phosphorus excretion was 20.9 ± 6.6 % in the NND group (n = 82) and 20.8 ± 5.5 % in the ADD group (n = 50) and was decreased by 2.8 ± 5.1 and 3.1 ± 5.4 %, respectively, (p = 0.6) at week 26. At week 26, the mean change in plasma phosphorus was 0.04 ± 0.12 mmol/L in the NND group and -0.03 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the ADD group (p = 0.001). Mean baseline phosphorus intake was 1950 ± 16 mg/10 MJ in the NND group and 1968 ± 22 mg/10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p
Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal: a randomised, controlled, crossover study of Danish sea buckthorn and strawberries in overweight and obese male subjects.
Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined.
The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t?=?0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at t?=?0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 140 min and subsequent ad libitum intake was recorded. Statistical differences in all continuous measures were evaluated based on the existence of a meal or a time-meal interaction by repeated measures linear model analyses or by differences in AUC by linear mixed models.
None of the berries affected postprandial glucose. However, sea buckthorn improved glycaemic profile (44.7%, p?
A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.
To describe changes in consumption of different types of beverages from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, and to examine associations with maternal age, educational level and BMI.
Cross-sectional design. Participants answered an FFQ at inclusion into a randomized controlled trial, the Fit for Delivery (FFD) trial, in median gestational week 15 (range: 9-20), reporting current consumption and in retrospect how often they drank the different beverages pre-pregnancy.
Eight local antenatal clinics in southern Norway from September 2009 to February 2013.
Five hundred and seventy-five healthy pregnant nulliparous women.
Pre-pregnancy, 27 % reported drinking alcohol at least once weekly, compared with none in early pregnancy (P
OBJECTIVE: It is debated whether the intake of added sugar displaces micronutrient-rich foods and dilutes the nutrient density of the diet, and whether there is a link between sugar and the increased rate of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of added sugar on the intakes of energy, micronutrients, fruit and vegetables, and to examine the association between intake of added sugar and age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, inactivity and parents' education. DESIGN: Participants recorded their food intake in pre-coded food diaries for 4 days and filled in a questionnaire about physical activity, watching television (TV)/using a personal computer (PC) and parents' education. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds, 810 students in the 4th grade (9 years old) and 1005 in the 8th grade (13 years old) were included in the study. RESULTS: The intakes of all nutrients, except alpha-tocopherol among 4-year-olds and vitamin C among 4-year-olds and 4th graders, decreased with increasing content of added sugar in the diet. Moreover, high consumers of added sugar had a 30-40% lower intake of fruit and vegetables than did low consumers. A negative association was observed between consumption of added sugar and body mass index among girls in the 8th grade (P=0.013), whereas a positive association was observed among 4-year-old boys (P=0.055). Associations between physical activity, hours spent watching TV/using a PC, parents' education and the energy intake from added sugar varied in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a negative association between the intake of added sugar and intakes of micronutrients, fruit and vegetables. The negative association between sugar intake and intake of fruit and vegetables is important from a public health perspective, since one of the main health messages today is to increase current intake of fruit and vegetables.
We recently showed that provision of Nordic school meals rich in fish, vegetables and potatoes and with reduced intakes of fat improved blood pressure, insulin resistance assessed by the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR), and plasma triacylglycerol despite increasing waist circumference in Danish 8-11-year-olds. This study explored whether intake or biomarkers of key dietary components in the schools meals were associated with these metabolic syndrome (MetS) markers during the 6-month intervention.
Data from 7-day dietary records and measurements of whole-blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), blood pressure, fasting blood MetS markers, waist circumference and android/total fat mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from 523 children were analyzed in linear mixed-effects models adjusted for puberty, growth and fasting.
After adjustment for multiple testing, whole-blood DHA was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (P