Results of epidemiological studies relating individual dietary factors to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent. To evaluate the cross sectional association of dietary factors with pulmonary function, data were collected from middle aged men in three European countries.
The data were collected in the 1960s in Finland (n = 1248), Italy (n = 1386), and the Netherlands (n = 691). Dietary intake was estimated using the cross-check dietary history method. Forced expiratory volume (FEV(0.75) or FEV(1), here called FEV) was measured by spirometry. Associations were adjusted for age, height, smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and energy intake.
FEV was positively associated with intake of vitamin E in Finland, with intake of fruit in Italy, and with intake of beta-carotene in the Netherlands. In all three countries men with intakes of both fruit and vegetables above the median had a higher FEV than those with a low intake of both foods. The difference in FEV ranged from 110 to 169 ml before and from 53 to 118 ml after energy adjustment. Differences in FEV for intake of three antioxidants (vitamins C and E and beta-carotene) above versus below the median ranged from 61 to 181 ml before and from -35 to 58 ml after energy adjustment. Intake of fish was not associated with FEV.
In three European countries a high intake of fruit and vegetables was positively associated with pulmonary function. A high intake of all three antioxidants tended to be positively associated with pulmonary function before, but not after, adjustment for energy intake. Associations of individual antioxidants with pulmonary function were not consistent across countries.
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The differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups in food consumption, energy intake and nutrient density of the diet of Finnish 9- to 15-year-old children were examined in a study performed within the project entitled Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Data on food consumption were collected using the 48-hour recall method. Family's socio-economic status was defined according to the father's educational level, his occupation, and family income. Children of families with higher socio-economic status used more fruit, low-fat milk, soft vegetable margarine and less high-fat milk, butter, rye products and coffee than did the children of families with lower socioeconomic status. Consequently, the main differences appeared in the fat, vitamin D, vitamin C and fatty acid content of the diet. Differences in energy intake and in mineral density of the diet were minor. If these childhood dietary differences remain in adulthood, it is possible that the present disparity between socio-economic groups in mortality from coronary heart disease will not disappear.
To assess prospectively the consumption of fruit and vegetables and its' correlation to the parental consumption in boys and girls taking part in an atherosclerosis prevention study (Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children (STRIP) study).
Nutrition counselling focused on cardiovascular health effects vegetable and fruit consumption.
A prospective, randomised, clinical trial.
Children were recruited to the STRIP study between 1989 and 1992. At the age of 7 months, children were randomised to the intervention (n = 540) or the control group (n = 522) and were followed up until the age of 11 years.
Families in the intervention group have, since randomisation, received biannual individualised dietary counselling aimed at reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, especially saturated fat intake. Food records were used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption of children and parents.
The percentage of total energy intake provided by fruit and vegetables decreased when the children grew older (P for age
To investigate the relation of baseline antioxidant, fruit, vegetable and fish intake with 20 y chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality in middle-aged men from three European countries.
Prospective study (1970-1990).
Five population-based cohorts of middle-aged men from Finland, Italy and The Netherlands.
A total of 2917 men aged 50-69 y at baseline.
Baseline information on diet was collected using the cross-check dietary history method. After 20 y of follow-up the underlying cause of death of those who died was established centrally. Survival analyses were performed using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model.
After adjustment for age, smoking and country, we observed an inverse trend (P-trend
To assess nutrient intakes relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among young adults in Finland and to find past and present determinants of quality of diet.
Prospective study, 21 years of follow-up.
The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, Finland.
At baseline in 1980: 3569 children aged 3-18 y participated (83% of those invited), and every second of them (1780) were selected to the dietary study. At follow-ups in 1986 and 2001: 1200 and 1037 of the original sample, respectively, participated.
Food consumption was assessed using 48-h dietary recall. Intakes in 2001 were compared with those obtained in 1980 and 1986. Nutrients selected for further examination were those implicated in the risk of CVD: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids, fibre and salt. An index describing the quality of adulthood diet was constructed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent childhood and adulthood determinants of the quality index.
The average intakes showed substantial changes since 1980. Intakes of fat and saturated fat had decreased, while the consumption of vegetables and fruit had increased. However, a great disparity was present between the recommended levels and actual intakes for many of the nutrients, particularly salt, saturated fat and fibre. Intake of fat and consumption of vegetables in childhood and physical activity in adulthood were important health behavioural determinants of the cardiovascular quality of the adult diet. Socio-demographic factors, including education of the subject and their parents, had no significant associations with diet.
While intakes of energy and nutrients have changed favourably in Finnish young adults between 1980 and 2001 with regard to the risk of CVD, they are still far from recommended levels. Childhood diet is a significant determinant of adult diet even after 21 y.
This study was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant 77841) and Juho Vainio Foundation.