The views of fathers of young families on health education were obtained using questionnaires issued through Maternity Health Care Clinics and Well-Baby Clinics. The present study is part of the Finnish Family Competence Study. The first phase of the study included 1,414 fathers whose wives were expecting their first baby. Of them, 1,279 returned a questionnaire. In the second phase, at week 28 of the wife's pregnancy, 1,123 fathers returned a questionnaire. A third questionnaire issued when the baby was born was completed by 1,134 fathers. A further questionnaire issued three months after the baby's birth was completed by 1,089 fathers. When the child was three years old, 753 fathers returned a questionnaire. Basic educational level, age and occupation were used as demographic variables. Backgrounds of respondents were studied using questions on the socioeconomic status of the fathers, as well as that of their wives and parents, and the locations of respondents' childhood and present homes. Subjects were asked comment on health education intended for their children. The socioeconomic status and age of the father affected preferences for the content and form of the child's health education. In memorizing their childhood experience of dental visits, most fathers stated that they had been frightened. Attention was not paid in the study to the extent to which the fathers had transferred this fear to their children.
The possible influence of the expectant mother's knowledge of childbirth on the outcome and experience of pregnancy and labour was investigated by means of a postpartum questionnaire in 1238 primiparae. The mothers were divided into two groups according to their basic childbirth knowledge. At birth, the conditions of newborns were equal in both groups when judged by Apgar scores. The low knowledge level group had small-for-gestational-age babies more frequently and these babies were also treated in the paediatric ward more frequently than those in the high knowledge group. The latter group was significantly more critical towards the staff of the delivery room and the postnatal ward; the fathers of this group were also present at delivery significantly more frequently. The low knowledge level group was significantly more unwilling to have another pregnancy in the near future or ever. The results indicate that low childbirth knowledge is associated with a poorer pregnancy outcome. It is a message to antenatal care staff of the need for support, supplementary education and careful obstetric surveillance. Low childbirth knowledge may imply a set of problems, including those in interparental relationship, socio-economic situation and need for close surveillance and improved education.
This study sought to determine how dental health and dental health habits change from 3 to 5 years of age and to consider whether preventive dental health care helped in preventing or halting caries in children.
The study included 67 maternity health care clinics, 72 well-baby clinics, and 69 dental health care clinics. Of the 1,292 newborn children, 1,003 (90.8%) were included in this study.
Preventive dental health care contributed to dental caries being halted in only 13.2 percent of those children who had enamel caries at 3 years of age. The dmft index did not increase in 22.6 percent of those children who had dentinal caries at 3 years of age. For all others, the disease became more severe. Toothbrushing habits of 3-year-old children were very consistent over the two years studied. Children were at a risk for caries when their mothers had nine years of basic education, when they already had plaque and caries at 3 years of age, and when the frequency of eating sweets increased the most during the two-year study period.
Among 3-year-old children, plaque is an indicator of caries risk and therefore should be a key element in health education. Those children who already have evidence of caries at 3 years of age should be the target of preventive dental services because of their increased risk.
The aim was to study whether 3-yr-old children's toothbrushing habits are associated with the child's other dental health habits and whether the mother's background influences the child's toothbrushing frequency. The survey used stratified randomized cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires and clinical dental examinations. A random sample of 1443 (91.2%) of a Finnish province's 1582 primiparous women participated in the study at the onset of their pregnancy. Dental health care clinics of the public health care system carried out dental examinations in 1018 (83.5%) 3-yr-old children born of these pregnancies. The variables used in the study included consumption of juice at night and sugar at the age of 1.5 yr and the use of fluoride tablets and sweets at the age of 3. The mother's background factors included age, basic education and occupation. Daily toothbrushing was practised by 78.2% of the children. Addition of sugar to the diet and frequent use of sweets at the age 3 were more common in those who brushed their teeth only occasionally, whereas the use of fluoride tablets was less frequent in them than in those brushing their teeth every day. Of the mothers' background factors, age was the most significant. The youngest mothers paid the least attention to their children's toothbrushing habits. The proportion of those brushing their teeth was 67.9% in rural areas, 78.6% in semi-urban population centers and 80.1% in towns (P = 0.02). The results indicate that the health education provided by dental health care clinics should be focussed on young mothers and rural families.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The study population consists of the fathers of the families which took part in the project 'The Finnish Family Competence Study', conducted by the Department of Public Health, University of Turku. The initial phase of the study included 1279 men. At the onset of the study project their families were expecting their first baby. When examining the fathers' use of alcohol, it was found that those with the highest level of basic education and those in professional occupations had the highest frequency of alcohol use, but they only consumed small amounts of alcohol at a time. In contrast, industrial employees and those with a lower level of education used alcohol less frequently, but they used larger amounts at a time. Thirty-two per cent of the respondents reduced their drinking after the onset of the wife's pregnancy. Of the respondents 43.7% were smokers, 8.4% of whom stopped smoking after the onset of the wife's pregnancy. Smoking cessation by the father was statistically significantly explained by the fact that the wife had not smoked before pregnancy or that she had stopped smoking after the onset of pregnancy, in which case the father did the same. When the fathers were divided into two categories according to their alcohol use, i.e. lighter and heavier users, it was found that the latter group had a more negative attitude towards their children. Similarly, smoking fathers were found to have a more negative attitude towards their children that the non-smoking ones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The importance of quality prenatal care is generally acknowledged. Quality care must include counseling and health education materials as well as clinical monitoring. The present study is part of a long term programme designed to evaluate the health education aspects of prenatal care in Finland.
The aim was to elucidate whether variables recorded in early childhood would have a long-lasting predictive value of poor dental health at the age of 10 years in a prospectively followed Finnish population-based cohort setting. The second aim was to find new tools for preventive work in order to improve dental health among children. Poor dental health (dmft + DMFT >or= 5) at 10 years of age was associated with child's nocturnal juice drinking at 18 months. It was associated with the following factors at age 3 years: frequent consumption of sweets; infrequent tooth brushing; plaque and caries on teeth. Of family factors, the following were significant: father's young age at birth of the child; mother's basic 9-year education; mother's caries (i.e. several carious teeth per year), and father's infrequent tooth brushing. Early childhood risk factors of poor dental health seem to be stable even after 10 years of life and the changing of teeth from primary to permanent ones. In preventive work, dental health care staff could offer support to those parents with risk factors in their child rearing tasks.
The purpose of this study was to examine dental health behavior in young fathers by means of a questionnaire for subjective evaluation of dental status, frequency of caries and visits to the dentist. Cariogenic diet was estimated by the consumption of sweets, confectionary and soft drinks. The participation rate 18 months after the birth of the family's first child was 73.1%. The mean age of the respondents was 28.1 yr (range 17-49; SD 4.6). When background factors were considered, it was observed that cariogenic diet was more often mentioned by participants from the lower social groups. The standard of the wife's knowledge level was an important indicator of dental care behavior in the fathers. If the wife's knowledge level was high, the father assessed the future condition of his child's teeth as good.
Changes in smoking and drinking habits of fathers of young families expecting their first baby were studied in maternity health care clinics. The first phase of the Finnish Family Competence Study included a total of 1414 fathers. Of these, 1279 responded to the questionnaire, the drop-out rate being 9.5%. Basic educational level, age, occupation and location of present and childhood home were used as demographic variables. Socio-economic factors of the father, his wife and his parents were also studied. The fathers were asked to give their own estimation of their smoking and alcohol consumption before and during the wife's pregnancy. Changes were seen in alcohol consumption, studied in relation to the amount consumed at one drinking time, frequency of alcohol consumption, age, and location of childhood home. Changes in smoking habits were studied in the same way. According to the fathers' own assessment, they reduced smoking and drinking of alcohol during their wives' pregnancies. Parents seem to transmit their own patterns of health behaviour to their children, and the model provided by them is highly important.
Eighty-six CP patients aged 15 to 27 years and followed from six to 25 years by one of the authors were examined to look at the functional and working capacity and the employment situation of these patients. Their age was 15-16 years in 26 (30%) and 17-27 years in 60 (70%) of cases. There were 47 males and 39 females. Sixty-eight patients (79%) suffered from a spastic, 9 ones (10.5%) from a dyskinetic and another 9 cases from an ataxic syndrome. The vocational training consisted of vocational college in two (2.5%), vocational school in six (7%), vocational course college or on-the-job training in three (3.5%) cases. Five were acquiring vocational training and 70 (81%) lacked it. Ten patients (12%) were normally employed and working regularly, 39 (45%) were attending normal school, and 13 (15%) were able to work but unemployed at the time of investigation. Four patients (5%) were in sheltered work and the remaining twenty ones (23%) were totally unable to work. The spastic patients were remarkably better employed than those with a dyskinetic or ataxic syndrome.