OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of added fats and oils across the European centres and countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: 24-Hour dietary recalls were collected by means of standardised computer-guided interviews in 27 redefined EPIC centres across 10 European countries. SUBJECTS: From an initial number of 36 900 subjects, single dietary recalls from 22 924 women and 13 031 men in the age range of 35-74 years were included. RESULTS: Mean daily intake of added fats and oils varied between 16.2 g (Varese, Italy) and 41.1 g (MalmÃ¶, Sweden) in women and between 24.7 g (Ragusa, Italy) and 66.0 g (Potsdam, Germany) in men. Total mean lipid intake by consumption of added fats and oils, including those used for sauce preparation, ranged between 18.3 (Norway) and 37.2 g day-1 (Greece) in women and 28.4 (Heidelberg, Germany) and 51.2 g day-1 (Greece) in men. The Mediterranean EPIC centres with high olive oil consumption combined with low animal fat intake contrasted with the central and northern European centres where fewer vegetable oils, more animal fats and a high proportion of margarine were consumed. The consumption of added fats and oils of animal origin was highest in the German EPIC centres, followed by the French. The contribution of added fats and oils to total energy intake ranged from 8% in Norway to 22% in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate a high variation in dietary intake of added fats and oils in EPIC, providing a good opportunity to elucidate the role of dietary fats in cancer aetiology.
International differences in breast cancer rates and diet, and studies in migrants, suggest that diet may be a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine the dietary intakes of women from populations considered to be at different risks for breast cancer. We collected four 24-h food recalls in 3 groups of postmenopausal Canadian women: Caucasians (n = 392), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (n = 156), and recent Chinese migrants (n = 383). Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants had lower energy and fat intakes and higher protein and carbohydrate intakes. Recent Chinese migrants consumed higher amounts of grains, vegetables, fish, and soy and lower amounts of alcohol, meat, dairy products, and sweets than Caucasians. Western-born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had intakes intermediate between the other 2 groups. The differences in intake between the ethnic groups suggest foods and nutrients that may contribute to the differences in risk of breast cancer between women in Canada and China. Future work will examine whether these dietary differences are associated with biological markers of breast cancer risk.