Lysosomal enzyme activity in the bile and blood serum was compared in mice with experimental intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate and Triton WR 1339. Triton WR 1339 increases the synthesis of cholesterol (fatty acid precursor) in liver cells. The development of intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by the increase in activities of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood serum. Administration of Triton WR 1339 in a dose of 100 mg/100 g was followed by a 10-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity (hepatocyte lysosomal enzyme) in the bile, but not in the serum of mice. beta-Galactosidase activity significantly increased in the bile, but decreased in the serum of mice after treatment with a-naphthyl isothiocyanate in a dose of 200 mg/kg. Our results indicate that intrahepatic cholestasis is manifested in increased secretion of lysosomal glycosidases into the bile. Bile components can aggravate damage to liver cells by affecting the processes of hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis.
A series of middle-aged men were investigated for total mortality up to five years after completing a questionnaire on alcohol consumption administered during a preventive medical screening programme in Malmö, Sweden. The aim was to test the hypothesis that small amounts of alcohol are beneficial to general and cardiovascular health. Relative mortality was increased among the men who had reported non-use of alcohol in the screening questionnaire. Most of these men, however, had chronic disease as the reason for their abstention, or even a past history of alcoholism.
To explore indicators and levels of alcohol consumption in a Russian population, and to elaborate these in relation to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
A total of 1963 men and 1734 women, aged 18-75 years, consecutively recruited at their compulsory annual medical check-up at the Semashko outpatient clinic, Arkhangelsk, participated in a cross-sectional health survey. The survey comprised a physical examination, a six-page questionnaire on health and lifestyle, and blood tests.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels in both sexes were more than twice as high as found in comparable studies. Elevated GGT-levels were 4-5 times more frequent than found in Norwegian studies. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) identified up to 75% of male workers and 47% of female workers as hazardous or harmful alcohol drinkers. The traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease were significantly higher in subjects with a high level of GGT.
The findings indicate an extremely high level of alcohol consumption in this population. Elevation in GGT was significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2005 Aug;34(4):788-9015937060
OBJECTIVE--To clarify the nature of the association between alcohol intake and psoriasis. DESIGN--Case-control study of men aged 19-50 with onset of skin disease in 1976 or later. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of the departments of dermatology of the university central hospitals in Helsinki, Oulu, and Tampere from September 1987 to April 1989. SUBJECTS--144 Patients with psoriasis and 285 unmatched controls with other skin diseases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of clinical examination and self administered questionnaire assessing lifestyle and alcohol intake during two specified periods--namely, 12 months before the onset of skin disease and 12 months before the date of examination. RESULTS--Recalled mean alcohol intake before the onset of skin diseases was 42.9 g/day among the patients with psoriasis and 21.0 g/day among the controls. In logistic regression analysis psoriasis was associated with alcohol intake but not with coffee consumption, smoking, age, marital state, or social group. The odds ratio for psoriasis at an alcohol intake of 100 g/day compared with no intake was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.9). The controls decreased their alcohol intake after the onset of the disease but the group with psoriasis did not. Analysis of serum enzyme values showed that gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was significantly correlated with alcohol intake (r = 0.35), the mean activity being 75.0 U/l among patients with psoriasis and 41.9 U/l among controls. CONCLUSIONS--Alcohol is a risk factor for psoriasis in young and middle aged men, and psoriasis may sustain drinking.
Alcohol-related disorders belong to the spectrum of major non-infectious diseases in Western societies which can be prevented by means that have not yet been fully implemented. Total consecutive mortality in a population of 10353 middle-age males invited to take a part in a preventive medical population program in Malmö was followed up for 3.5-8.5 years (mean 4.5) after the time of invitation and analysed in relation to participation or non-participation and forensic or in-hospital autopsy. Entry characteristics in the 7935 males who attended the screening were compared in order to evaluate risk factor patterns for the major categories of premature death during the follow-up period. Even in the males participating in the screening, alcohol-related deaths (ARD) constituted a major mortality category, comprising 55 of 218 cases, whereas cancer comprised 61 and coronary heart disease (CHD) 50 of the premature deaths in this group. Both in the ARD and CHD categories of male premature mortality, significant and distinctly differential risk factor patterns were found; in CHD for smoking, cholesterol, serum triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, and in ARD for gamma-glutamyltransferase, questionnaire alcoholism screening test and, inversely, serum cholesterol and serum creatinine. In both groups of diseases, these risk factors could be combined into highly predictive multiple logistic risk factor functions. The discriminative power of this instrument was even higher in ARD than in CHD deaths. In consequence, these factors may be applied both as indicators of the ARD risk and as signals and instrument for directed preventive measures in analogy with previously well established and tested methods for the regulation of blood pressure, serum lipids, etc. in the conquest of the cardiovascular diseases.
In an ongoing population study in Malmö, Sweden, serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was used both as an indicator of alcohol-related problems and as an aid in further investigation and treatment. The study group was consecutively selected from six middle-aged male birth-year cohorts of 8859 screening attenders (76.1% attendance), and comprised a random one-half (N = 317) of the individuals with screening GGT in the top decentile of the distribution. Alcohol consumption was the main cause of GGT elevation in 76% of the study group. Symptoms of alcoholism were frequent in these subjects but were rare in those with normal GGT levels. Marital and occupational measures were similar to those in the general population for subjects who were still in treatment but differed for subjects who had dropped out within 2 yr. Comparisons of medical and social data, the questionnaire results and other screening measures between the study group and the other subjects with screening GGT in the top decentile showed equivalence between the two groups and indicated that the study group was representative of the entire group with significantly elevated GGT values in the screening investigation.
Self-reported information on alcohol from questionnaires is generally assumed to introduce misclassification of consumption, mainly in the direction of underestimation. The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported information on alcohol consumption from a mailed questionnaire by comparing to a dietary history interview and biochemical markers of alcohol intake.
For 76 male twin pairs of the Finnish Twin Cohort Study aged 40-70 years information on self-reported alcohol consumption was collected through mailed questionnaire and dietary history interview. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), Gamma-glutamyltransferase (Gamma-GT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were determined from blood samples.
Mean levels of CDT, gamma-GT and MCV showed a rise with increased self-reported alcohol consumption already at low levels of reported consumption ( or = 30 g/day) there was no such correlation. The questionnaire had sensitivity of 28-43% and specificity of 89% for identification of high consumers of alcohol using the biochemical markers as reference and sensitivity 41% and specificity 94% using the dietary history interview as reference. Sensitivity was improved when information on binge drinking (82%) or possible drinking problems (73%) was considered.
Comparison to dietary history interview as well as to biochemical markers indicate that self-reported information on alcohol consumption from a mailed questionnaire may be used to distinguish between groups with different levels of alcohol consumption. The suggested misclassification of high consumers implies that only strong associations between high alcohol intake and disease are likely to be detected in studies based on questionnaire data.