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36 records – page 1 of 4.

Agreement of self-reported use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy with physician reports.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202232
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 May;10(3):260-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
M G Jain
T E Rohan
G R Howe
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 May;10(3):260-3
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Endometrial Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - adverse effects - classification - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Medical Records - standards
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been relatively few epidemiological studies to verify the information obtained from study participants on the use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy. We conducted this study as part of a case-control study of diet, hormone use, and endometrial cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1994-1998. We compared records from 653 subjects, 30-79 years of age, with reports from their physicians on ever/never use of hormone replacement therapy and duration, type, and dose of hormone replacement therapy. A total of 88% of the interview records were in agreement with physician reports for ever/never use of hormone replacement therapy. The overall kappa value for ever/never use agreement was 0.76 (range = 0.71-0.81), and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.64 (range = 0.57-0.70) for duration of hormone replacement therapy use, indicating good agreement; similar correlations were seen among cases and controls for overall use, as well as estrogen- or progestogen-alone use. Concordance for brand codes was observed for about 43% of the subjects. This study suggests that information obtained by interview in case-control studies provides a reasonable measure of ever use of hormone replacement therapy and duration of use. Interviews, however, do not represent a reliable source of information on brands and dosage of hormone replacement therapy preparations.
PubMed ID
10230835 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198787
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Mar;11(3):239-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
T E Rohan
M. Jain
G R Howe
A B Miller
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Mar;11(3):239-47
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
To study the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk.
A case-cohort analysis was undertaken within the cohort of 56,837 women who were enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) and who completed a self-administered dietary questionnaire. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-59 at recruitment.) The cohort was recruited between 1980 and 1985, and during follow-up to the end of 1993 a total of 1469 women in the dietary cohort were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident breast cancer. For comparative purposes a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5681 women was selected from the full dietary cohort. After exclusions for various reasons the analyses were based on 1336 cases and 5238 noncases.
When compared to nondrinkers the adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for those consuming > 0 and 10 and 20 and 30 and 40 and 50 g/day were 1.01 (0.84-1.22), 1.16 (0.91-1.47), 1.27 (0.91-1.78), 0.77 (0.51-1.16), 1.00 (0.57-1.75), and 1.70 (0.97-2.98), respectively; the associated p value for the test for trend was 0.351. Similar findings were obtained when analyses were conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, for screen-detected and interval-detected breast cancer, and by levels of other breast cancer risk factors.
The results of this study suggest that alcohol consumption might be associated with increased risk of breast cancer at relatively high levels of intake.
PubMed ID
10782658 View in PubMed
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Are female smokers at higher risk for lung cancer than male smokers? A case-control analysis by histologic type.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220337
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Sep 1;138(5):281-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1993
Author
H A Risch
G R Howe
M. Jain
J D Burch
E J Holowaty
A B Miller
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Sep 1;138(5):281-93
Date
Sep-1-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - etiology
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Carcinoma - epidemiology - etiology
Carcinoma, Small Cell - epidemiology - etiology
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Time Factors
Abstract
A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Jul 15;140(2):185-6; author reply 187-88023806
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Jul 15;140(2):186-7; author reply 187-88023808
PubMed ID
8395141 View in PubMed
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Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature249573
Source
Lancet. 1977 Sep 17;2(8038):578-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-17-1977
Author
G R Howe
J D Burch
A B Miller
B. Morrison
P. Gordon
L. Weldon
L W Chambers
G. Fodor
G M Winsor
Source
Lancet. 1977 Sep 17;2(8038):578-81
Date
Sep-17-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Cyclamates - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Diet Surveys
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Humans
Male
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Questionnaires
Risk
Saccharin - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Sex ratio
Time Factors
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Abstract
A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.
PubMed ID
71398 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with breast cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211841
Source
Radiat Res. 1996 Jun;145(6):694-707
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1996
Author
G R Howe
J. McLaughlin
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York 10032, USA.
Source
Radiat Res. 1996 Jun;145(6):694-707
Date
Jun-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Breast Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Fluoroscopy - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Japan - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - etiology - mortality
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Nuclear Warfare
Radiation, Ionizing
Risk assessment
Time Factors
Abstract
The relationship between exposure to low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation and subsequent breast cancer mortality risk is reported based on a further 7 years of follow-up in the Canadian fluoroscopy study. Amongst 31,917 women first treated for tuberculosis in a Canadian institution between 1930 and 1952, a total of 688 breast cancer deaths were observed between 1950 and 1987. There is a strong linear trend of increasing risk with increasing dose (P
PubMed ID
8643829 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer mortality following fluoroscopic irradiation in a cohort of tuberculosis patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature243646
Source
Cancer Detect Prev. 1982;5(2):175-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1982
Author
G R Howe
A B Miller
G J Sherman
Source
Cancer Detect Prev. 1982;5(2):175-8
Date
1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Canada
Female
Fluoroscopy - adverse effects
Humans
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
Risk
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - radiography
Abstract
A study has been conducted to determine the mortality experience from 1950-1977 of a cohort of women treated for tuberculosis in Canadian sanatoria between 1930 and 1952. Approximately 50 percent of these women received substantial breast tissue doses of fluoroscopic irradiation in conjunction with their treatment by artificial pneumothorax. A preliminary analysis of 23572 women known alive at the beginning of 1950 has shown a highly significant breast cancer mortality risk for those women exposed to such radiation. There is evidence of decreasing effect with increasing age at first exposure, and no increase in risk is observed until ten years after first exposure.
PubMed ID
7127341 View in PubMed
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Cancer mortality among males in relation to exposures assessed through a job-exposure matrix.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197678
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):194-202
Publication Type
Article
Author
T L Weston
K J Aronson
J. Siemiatycki
G R Howe
L. Nadon
Author Affiliation
Bureau of Biostatistics and Computer Applications, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Banting Building PL:2203B, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. anya_weston@hc-sc.gc.ca>
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):194-202
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Databases, Factual
Death Certificates
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
To identify potential associations between workplace exposures and cancer mortality risks, job titles collected from 1965 to 1971 for 58,678 men (a subset of a large representative sample of the Canadian workforce) were transformed into probable chemical exposures using a job-exposure matrix developed in Montreal. Mortality follow-up was determined through computerized record linkage with the National Mortality Database in Canada for 1965-1991. Cancer mortality risk was evaluated at two levels of exposure, any and substantial, using Poisson regression controlling for age, calendar period, and social class. Among the 58,678 men, 3,160 died of cancer. Using a liberal reporting criterion, relative risk (RR) >1.0, five or more exposed cancer deaths, p
PubMed ID
10926723 View in PubMed
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A case-control study of diet and colo-rectal cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245157
Source
Int J Cancer. 1980 Dec 15;26(6):757-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-1980
Author
M. Jain
G M Cook
F G Davis
M G Grace
G R Howe
A B Miller
Source
Int J Cancer. 1980 Dec 15;26(6):757-68
Date
Dec-15-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Canada
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Diet - adverse effects
Energy intake
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Risk
Sex Factors
Abstract
A case-control study of cancer of the colon and rectum has been conducted in Calgary, Alberta and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 348 cases of cancer of the colon and 194 cases of cancer of the rectum were individually matched by age, sex and neighbourhood of residence to 542 population controls and frequency match to 535 hospital controls who had undergone an abdominal operation. Each subject received a personal medical history questionnaire and a quantitative diet history questionnaire. Data on a number of potential non-nutrient risk factors for bowel cancer and on the consumption of 9 nutrients in the 2-month period up to 6 months before interview were analysed. The dietary data thus refer to recent diet consumed in a period antedating the diagnosis of, and in most cases symptoms from, large-bowel cancer in the cases, and a corresponding time period in the controls. The major findings were an elevated risk for those with a history of bowel polyps, and for those with an elevated intake of calories, total fat, total protein, saturated fat, oleic acid and cholesterol. No association was seen with an elevated intake of crude fibre, Vitamin C and linoleic acid. The nutrients for which an increased risk was demonstrated were highly correlated, though multivariate analysis using logistic regression indicated highest risk for saturated fat, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. The findings in both cancer sites, both sexes and with both sets of controls were quantitatively very similar. The population-attributable risk for colon and rectal cancer combined was estimated from the neighbourhood controls to be 41% for males and 44% for females for saturated fat intake and 9.8% and 6.4% respectively for any history of polyps.
PubMed ID
7216545 View in PubMed
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Cigarette smoking and breast cancer: case-control studies of prevalent and incident cancer in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230371
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Aug;130(2):213-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1989
Author
M T Schechter
A B Miller
G R Howe
C J Baines
K J Craib
C. Wall
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, U. of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Aug;130(2):213-20
Date
Aug-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Mammography
Mass Screening - methods
Menopause
Middle Aged
Palpation
Random Allocation
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
Two case-control studies of Canadian women aged 40-59 years are reported investigating the relation of cigarette smoking with initial visit (prevalent) and subsequent visit (incident) breast cancer detection, respectively, within the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. The analysis of prevalent breast cancer (1982-1985), which involved 254 cases and 762 controls, showed no evidence of an elevated risk for women with a history of cigarette smoking, with odds ratios of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.6-1.5) and 1.2 (95% Cl 0.8-1.8) in premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects, respectively. Similarly, in the incident breast cancer analysis (1981-1987) based on 317 cases and 951 controls, women with a history of cigarette smoking had odds ratios of 1.2 (95% Cl 0.8-2.0) and 1.2 (95% Cl 0.9-1.7) in the premenopausal and postmenopausal categories, respectively. No evidence of dose response or of elevated risk in ex-smokers or current smokers was found in either study. These results persisted despite adjustment for several important variables. The present data demonstrate no association between smoking and prevalent or incident breast cancer in either menopausal category, contradicting the authors' previous finding of a positive association with premenopausal prevalent disease earlier in this screening study. The relation of smoking and breast cancer remains controversial. Further study is required to determine whether an association truly does not exist or whether smoking might have both protective and harmful effects that are mediated through different pathways, thus accounting for the paradoxical findings in the literature to date.
PubMed ID
2787599 View in PubMed
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36 records – page 1 of 4.