There have been relatively few epidemiological studies to verify the information obtained from study participants on the use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy. We conducted this study as part of a case-control study of diet, hormone use, and endometrial cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1994-1998. We compared records from 653 subjects, 30-79 years of age, with reports from their physicians on ever/never use of hormone replacement therapy and duration, type, and dose of hormone replacement therapy. A total of 88% of the interview records were in agreement with physician reports for ever/never use of hormone replacement therapy. The overall kappa value for ever/never use agreement was 0.76 (range = 0.71-0.81), and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.64 (range = 0.57-0.70) for duration of hormone replacement therapy use, indicating good agreement; similar correlations were seen among cases and controls for overall use, as well as estrogen- or progestogen-alone use. Concordance for brand codes was observed for about 43% of the subjects. This study suggests that information obtained by interview in case-control studies provides a reasonable measure of ever use of hormone replacement therapy and duration of use. Interviews, however, do not represent a reliable source of information on brands and dosage of hormone replacement therapy preparations.
To study the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk.
A case-cohort analysis was undertaken within the cohort of 56,837 women who were enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) and who completed a self-administered dietary questionnaire. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-59 at recruitment.) The cohort was recruited between 1980 and 1985, and during follow-up to the end of 1993 a total of 1469 women in the dietary cohort were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident breast cancer. For comparative purposes a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5681 women was selected from the full dietary cohort. After exclusions for various reasons the analyses were based on 1336 cases and 5238 noncases.
When compared to nondrinkers the adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for those consuming > 0 and 10 and 20 and 30 and 40 and 50 g/day were 1.01 (0.84-1.22), 1.16 (0.91-1.47), 1.27 (0.91-1.78), 0.77 (0.51-1.16), 1.00 (0.57-1.75), and 1.70 (0.97-2.98), respectively; the associated p value for the test for trend was 0.351. Similar findings were obtained when analyses were conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, for screen-detected and interval-detected breast cancer, and by levels of other breast cancer risk factors.
The results of this study suggest that alcohol consumption might be associated with increased risk of breast cancer at relatively high levels of intake.
A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.
A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.
Breast cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with breast cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study.
The relationship between exposure to low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation and subsequent breast cancer mortality risk is reported based on a further 7 years of follow-up in the Canadian fluoroscopy study. Amongst 31,917 women first treated for tuberculosis in a Canadian institution between 1930 and 1952, a total of 688 breast cancer deaths were observed between 1950 and 1987. There is a strong linear trend of increasing risk with increasing dose (P
A study has been conducted to determine the mortality experience from 1950-1977 of a cohort of women treated for tuberculosis in Canadian sanatoria between 1930 and 1952. Approximately 50 percent of these women received substantial breast tissue doses of fluoroscopic irradiation in conjunction with their treatment by artificial pneumothorax. A preliminary analysis of 23572 women known alive at the beginning of 1950 has shown a highly significant breast cancer mortality risk for those women exposed to such radiation. There is evidence of decreasing effect with increasing age at first exposure, and no increase in risk is observed until ten years after first exposure.
To identify potential associations between workplace exposures and cancer mortality risks, job titles collected from 1965 to 1971 for 58,678 men (a subset of a large representative sample of the Canadian workforce) were transformed into probable chemical exposures using a job-exposure matrix developed in Montreal. Mortality follow-up was determined through computerized record linkage with the National Mortality Database in Canada for 1965-1991. Cancer mortality risk was evaluated at two levels of exposure, any and substantial, using Poisson regression controlling for age, calendar period, and social class. Among the 58,678 men, 3,160 died of cancer. Using a liberal reporting criterion, relative risk (RR) >1.0, five or more exposed cancer deaths, p
A case-control study of cancer of the colon and rectum has been conducted in Calgary, Alberta and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 348 cases of cancer of the colon and 194 cases of cancer of the rectum were individually matched by age, sex and neighbourhood of residence to 542 population controls and frequency match to 535 hospital controls who had undergone an abdominal operation. Each subject received a personal medical history questionnaire and a quantitative diet history questionnaire. Data on a number of potential non-nutrient risk factors for bowel cancer and on the consumption of 9 nutrients in the 2-month period up to 6 months before interview were analysed. The dietary data thus refer to recent diet consumed in a period antedating the diagnosis of, and in most cases symptoms from, large-bowel cancer in the cases, and a corresponding time period in the controls. The major findings were an elevated risk for those with a history of bowel polyps, and for those with an elevated intake of calories, total fat, total protein, saturated fat, oleic acid and cholesterol. No association was seen with an elevated intake of crude fibre, Vitamin C and linoleic acid. The nutrients for which an increased risk was demonstrated were highly correlated, though multivariate analysis using logistic regression indicated highest risk for saturated fat, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. The findings in both cancer sites, both sexes and with both sets of controls were quantitatively very similar. The population-attributable risk for colon and rectal cancer combined was estimated from the neighbourhood controls to be 41% for males and 44% for females for saturated fat intake and 9.8% and 6.4% respectively for any history of polyps.
Two case-control studies of Canadian women aged 40-59 years are reported investigating the relation of cigarette smoking with initial visit (prevalent) and subsequent visit (incident) breast cancer detection, respectively, within the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. The analysis of prevalent breast cancer (1982-1985), which involved 254 cases and 762 controls, showed no evidence of an elevated risk for women with a history of cigarette smoking, with odds ratios of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.6-1.5) and 1.2 (95% Cl 0.8-1.8) in premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects, respectively. Similarly, in the incident breast cancer analysis (1981-1987) based on 317 cases and 951 controls, women with a history of cigarette smoking had odds ratios of 1.2 (95% Cl 0.8-2.0) and 1.2 (95% Cl 0.9-1.7) in the premenopausal and postmenopausal categories, respectively. No evidence of dose response or of elevated risk in ex-smokers or current smokers was found in either study. These results persisted despite adjustment for several important variables. The present data demonstrate no association between smoking and prevalent or incident breast cancer in either menopausal category, contradicting the authors' previous finding of a positive association with premenopausal prevalent disease earlier in this screening study. The relation of smoking and breast cancer remains controversial. Further study is required to determine whether an association truly does not exist or whether smoking might have both protective and harmful effects that are mediated through different pathways, thus accounting for the paradoxical findings in the literature to date.