OBJECTIVE: Zinc deficiency has shown to increase the risk for diabetes in diabetes-prone experimental animals. Low concentrations of zinc have also been shown in serum of recent onset cases with IDDM. The present study examines the hypothesis that exposure to a low concentration of zinc in drinking water could increase the risk for future onset of IDDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Swedish childhood diabetes registry and data on residence 3 years before the onset of disease, a case-control study was designed comparing cases and control subjects with estimates of groundwater contents of zinc obtained in biogeochemical samples from areas of residence. RESULTS: A high groundwater concentration of zinc was associated with a significant decrease in risk (odds ration [OR] = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.7-0.9). The same OR was obtained when the model included information of other metals that might act as possible confounders (chromium, vanadium, cobalt selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury). In small rural areas, in which drinking water is taken from local wells and thus is closely associated with the groundwater content within the area, an even stronger association between zinc and diabetes (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9) was found. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that this study for the first time provides evidence that a low groundwater content of zinc, which may reflect long-term exposure through drinking water, is associated with later development of childhood onset diabetes.
Chronic biogeochemical stress results in enteric dysbiosis and is one of the active triggers, that cause deviations of integrative homeostatic parameters, and responsible for the high prevalence of atherosclerotic changes, including myocardial infarction, among the population of the silicon biogeochemical province of the Chuvash Republic, which is associated with the body's nonspecific adaptive reactions.
The main etiologic factor of various diseases, syndromes and pathologic conditions is an excess, deficiency or imbalance of trace element intake into the human body. Children seem to be the most sensitive to each change of trace element homeostasis. An inadequate essential trace element intake may result in an undesirable consequence that can apparently multiply against a background of additional unfavourable environmental influence such as high levels of radiation, organic and inorganic toxins, etc. Thus, the quality control of children's diets assumes urgent importance within the regions covered by the Chernobyl disaster. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to estimate contents of Ag, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, and Zn in the diets of children and adolescents. Diets were chosen from day care centre, boarding school and technical college cafeterias situated within the south and south west territories of the Kaluga Region, where radionuclide contamination ranges up to 15 Ci/km2. Ca and Zn deficiencies were found in the diets of children and adolescents aged 7-18. The Ca intake is only 212 mg/day, 5 times lower than that in developed countries. The Zn intake is 6.8 mg/day, 2 times lower than the level recommended by the WHO.
Moose (Alces alces) found dead (FD) and hunter-killed (HK) in 1995 on the north slope of Alaska (USA) in the Colville River Drainage were evaluated for heavy metal and mineral status. Compared to previous reports for moose and domestic cattle, and data presented here from Alaska moose outside the Colville River area, levels of Cu were determined to be low in hoof, hair, liver, kidney, rumen contents, and muscle for these north slope moose. Iron (Fe) was low in muscle as well. These findings, in conjunction with evidence of poor calf survival and adult mortality prompted investigation of a mineral deficiency in moose (serum, blood, and hair) captured in the spring of 1996 and 1997. Captured males had higher Ca, Zn and Cu levels in hair than captured females. Female moose hair samples were determined to be low (deficient) in Cu, Ca, Fe, and Se with mean levels (ppm) of 2.77, 599.7, 37.4, and 0.30, respectively. Serum Cu level was low, and to a lesser degree Zn was deficient as well. Whole blood (1997 only) was marginally deficient in Se and all animals were deficient in Cu. Based on whole blood, sera and hair, Cu levels were considered low for moose captured in spring 1996 and 1997 in the Colville River area as compared to published data and other populations evaluated in this study. Low levels of ceruloplasmin activity support this Cu deficiency theory. Evidence indicates that these moose are deficient in Cu and other minerals; however, the remote location precluded sufficient examination of animals to associate this apparent deficiency with direct effects or lesions. Renal levels of Cd increased with age at expected levels.
The paper presents the results of study of zinc hair content in 43 Moscow schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years of both sex (May 2003 to December 2003). Significant drop of zinc hair content was established in 67% of schoolchildren. It was shown that the organic form of zinc enchanted zinc hair content. The findings will be used to implement preventive and health-promoting measures among schoolchildren.
The aim of the work is to test the application of the method of evaluating the content of zinc in the hair of the child population for solving SHM tasks on the example of the Irkutsk region. In total 426 children aged 5-6 years were examined, selected in four groups. The first group was consisted of children residing in a large industrial center to the south of the region, the second--in the the small town of the central part, the third group was formed by rural children of the central region, and the fourth--the northern and foothill regions. Hair analysis was performed by atomic absorption method. Found that zinc content in hair was established to be prone to significant variability. In children of the southern industrial center of the region (Group 1) there was noted the least amount of zinc (median is of 65.6 mg/kg). In 53% of the samples the element content was below the absolute norm (AN), out of which 25% below the biologically permissible limits (BPL). Only in 8.5% of the samples the zinc content exceeded AN and 3%-- BPL. In the range of AN there are 38% of the children, within the BPL range--71%. In the 2nd, the median of the concentration of zinc in the hair was 152.5 mg/kg. In the range of the AN there were 53% of the samples, in the BPL range--86% of the samples. Deviations from the reference levels were observed in the direction of exceedence of values. 36% of rural children (group 3) are provided with zinc within the limits of AN, 93%--within BPL. Only in 6% of children the zinc content in the hair below AN or BPL. In the 4th Group only 7.7% of samples were in the AN range and 27% of the samples--in the BPL range. 92% of the samples were way beyond the limits of AN and 73%--beyond the BPL. In most of the samples the higher content of zinc was observed. The highest concentrations of zinc in hair were observed in children living in the northern foothills and the Irkutsk region, which are characterized by elevated levels of this metal in the soil. In the diet of the inhabitants of these regions there is prevailed local food of animal origin, which is the main source of the entry of zinc into the body. In areas of intensive industrial development, despite the rather high zinc content in the objects of the environment, there was noted the high frequency of the zinc deficiency states, especially in conditions of complex chemical factors exposure and lifestyle that may be associated with features of not only input, but also the absorption of zinc in the body children.