It has been highlighted that youth empowerment and participation are important principles for school health promotion. Despite this fact, children and youth are rarely given instruments to participate or to influence their situations and the environments in their schools. Photovoice is a method to increased empowerment and participation. Originally it was created as a community action research method based on Freire's critical pedagogy and feminist theory. The purpose of this study was to explore challenges and opportunities for applying photovoice in a school setting to support genuine participation. Together with teachers and students in an upper secondary school in Östersund's municipality in the north of Sweden, the photovoice method was field tested and modified to a classroom situation. The teachers and the students were interviewed about their experiences with the method. The results were interpreted by content analysis and showed that the teachers' capability to be facilitators and the students' possibility to make a difference for the school or the municipality were the most important factors to succeed with photovoice. The conclusions were that photovoice challenges schools and society to have a better structure for genuine participation if youth participation is seen as valuable.
The incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is increasing worldwide; however, this varies by region. To date, there are limited data about trends of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Canada.
To determine the demographic and tumor characteristic changes in patients diagnosed with BCC and SCC from 1993 to 2005 in a dermatology practice in Vancouver, British Columbia.
A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with biopsy-confirmed NMSC between 1993 and 2005. Demographic and tumor characteristics were documented for the first two incident BCCs and SCCs per patient, and a descriptive data analysis was undertaken.
A total of 1,177 NMSCs were identified from 885 patient charts. The number of BCCs increased from 1993 to 2003 and then decreased until 2005. BCCs and SCCs were generally diagnosed in older people (60+ years); however, an important group of younger patients (20-39 years) was also diagnosed with BCCs. BCCs and SCCs were most commonly seen on the head and neck, but the leg was a common location for SCC in women.
NMSC is prevalent in British Columbia. These results highlight the fact that NMSC can affect individuals younger than 40 years old. Prevention strategies are warranted to reduce the burden of NMSC in British Columbia.
Although community-onset bloodstream infection (BSI) is recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, its epidemiology has not been well defined in non-selected populations. We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance in the Victoria area, Canada during 1998-2005 in order to determine the burden associated with community-onset BSI. A total of 2785 episodes were identified for an overall annual incidence of 101·2/100,000. Males and the very young and the elderly were at highest risk. Overall 1980 (71%) episodes resulted in hospital admission for a median length of stay of 8 days; the total days of acute hospitalization associated with community-onset BSI was 28 442 days or 1034 days/100,000 population per year. The in-hospital case-fatality rate was 13%. Community-onset BSI is associated with a major burden of illness. These data support ongoing and future preventative and research efforts aimed at reducing the major impact of these infections.
The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA) and first-time diagnosis of hip OA in consecutive patients presenting to chiropractic practices in Denmark and to report the components of the initial treatment rendered by the chiropractic practitioner.
A total of 2000 patient records and 1000 radiographs were reviewed retrospectively in 20 chiropractic clinics throughout Denmark. Information obtained included patients' primary complaint, physical examination and radiographic findings of hip OA, and treatment. Subsequently, the 20 clinics participated in a prospective survey where they collected equivalent information over a 2-week period.
Retrospective review of records revealed that 1.4% of patients in Danish chiropractic practice had signs of clinical hip OA. Of these, 59% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA. Prospective data collection revealed that 3.4% of new patients had signs of clinical hip OA. Fifty-four percent of these demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA, and of these 70% were diagnosed as having OA of the hip for the first time. Initial treatment involved manual treatment and advice on over-the-counter pain medication and/or supplements. Of all 1000 retrospectively reviewed radiographs in patients 40 years or older, 19.2% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA.
Osteoarthritis of the hip is diagnosed and managed in primary care chiropractic practice in Denmark; however, it is likely underdiagnosed. In those newly presenting to chiropractic practitioners, first-time diagnosis with clinical and radiographic signs of hip OA appears to be common.
The aim was to evaluate whether contracted private practitioners assess required treatment more extensive, demanding and economically more rewarding than mainly salaried public sector dentists and to estimate the cost consequences of using these alternative providers.
All dental services included in comprehensive treatments funded by the city of Turku and provided to adult patients during the year 2009 were recorded. Patients were distributed randomly without any determination of treatment needs before appointing them to different dentists. Treatment courses for 7432 patients in public clinics included 63 906 procedures and for 2932 patients assigned to treatment by contracted private practitioners included 21 194 procedures. Public sector dentists were mainly salaried with production incentives, and private practitioners worked purely on a fee-for-service basis. The cost estimates were based on the distributions of competence classifications recorded by the providers, which also formed the basis for reimbursement.
For each studied treatment category with more than one competence classification, private contractors were less likely than their public sector counterparts to give an assessment of simple or less demanding: 8% versus 29% of examinations, 46% versus 69% of periodontal treatments, 63% versus 85% of extractions, 31% versus 46% of fillings, 18% versus 35% of root canals. The excess cost to society varied from 7.0% for root canal treatments to 21.3% for extractions, causing on average 14.4% higher cost level from use of private practitioners compared with public sector dentists.
Private practitioners systematically classified the treatment procedures they provided as more demanding, and therefore more economically rewarding, than their public sector counterparts. The findings indicate that the costs of publicly funded dental care may be increased by the use of private dental contractors.
To create and apply a framework for quality assessment and improvement in care for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.
A framework for quality assessment and improvement was created for IBD based on two generally acknowledged quality models. The model of Donabedian (Df) offers a logistical and productive perspective and the Clinical Value Compass (CVC) model adds a management and service perspective. The framework creates a pedagogical tool to understand the balance between the dimensions of clinical care (CVC) and the components of clinical outcome (Df). The merged models create a framework of the care process dimensions as a whole, reflecting important parts of the IBD care delivery system in a local setting. Clinical and organizational quality measures were adopted from clinical experience and the literature and were integrated into the framework. Data were collected at the yearly check-up for 481 IBD patients during 2008. The application of the quality assessment framework was tested and evaluated in a local clinical IBD care setting in Jönköping County, Sweden.
The main outcome was the presentation of how locally-selected clinical quality measures, integrated into two complementary models to develop a framework, could be instrumental in assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with IBD. The selected quality measures of the framework noted less anemia in the population than previously reported, provided information about hospitalization rates and the few surgical procedures reported, and noted good access to the clinic.
The applied local quality framework was feasible and useful for assessing the quality of care delivered to IBD patients in a local setting.
Smokers are often incorrect in their assessment of the relative risk of snus and cigarettes. We have studied how perception of risks of snus compared with cigarettes was associated with the willingness of trying snus as a quit-smoking method.
Fourteen thousand seven hundred and forty-four Norwegian men aged 20-50 years were selected at random from a national representative web panel and sent a questionnaire by e-mail. Of the 7,170 (48.6%) who responded, there were 1,155 former daily smokers who reported method for quitting smoking and 1,213 current daily smokers who stated their willingness to try different methods for quitting smoking. They were also asked to assess the relative risk between daily use of snus and cigarettes.
Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for reporting willingness to try snus in future quit attempts was significantly higher (AOR = 4.82, p
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The extent to which better spending produces higher-quality care and better patient outcomes in a universal health care system with selective access to medical technology is unknown.
To assess whether acute care patients admitted to higher-spending hospitals have lower mortality and readmissions.
The study population comprised adults (>18 years) in Ontario, Canada, with a first admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 179,139), congestive heart failure (CHF) (n = 92,377), hip fracture (n = 90,046), or colon cancer (n = 26,195) during 1998-2008, with follow-up to 1 year. The exposure measure was the index hospital's end-of-life expenditure index for hospital, physician, and emergency department services.
The primary outcomes were 30-day and 1-year mortality and readmissions and major cardiac events (readmissions for AMI, angina, CHF, or death) for AMI and CHF.
Patients' baseline health status was similar across hospital expenditure groups. Patients admitted to hospitals in the highest- vs lowest-spending intensity terciles had lower rates of all adverse outcomes. In the highest- vs lowest-spending hospitals, respectively, the age- and sex-adjusted 30-day mortality rate was 12.7% vs 12.8% for AMI, 10.2% vs 12.4% for CHF, 7.7% vs 9.7% for hip fracture, and 3.3% vs 3.9% for CHF; fully adjusted relative 30-day mortality rates were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98) for AMI, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.86) for CHF, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68-0.80) for hip fracture, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.66-0.91) for colon cancer. Results for 1-year mortality, readmissions, and major cardiac events were similar. Higher-spending hospitals had higher nursing staff ratios, and their patients received more inpatient medical specialist visits, interventional (AMI cohort) and medical (AMI and CHF cohorts) cardiac therapies, preoperative specialty care (colon cancer cohort), and postdischarge collaborative care with a cardiologist and primary care physician (AMI and CHF cohorts).
Among Ontario hospitals, higher spending intensity was associated with lower mortality, readmissions, and cardiac event rates.
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Return-to-work (RTW) status is an often used outcome in work and health research. In low back pain, work is regarded as a normal activity a worker should return to in order to fully recover. Comparing outcomes across studies and even jurisdictions using different definitions of RTW can be challenging for readers in general and when performing a systematic review in particular. In this study, the measurement properties of previously defined RTW outcomes were examined with data from two studies from two countries.
Data on RTW in low back pain (LBP) from the Canadian Early Claimant Cohort (ECC); a workers' compensation based study, and the Dutch Amsterdam Sherbrooke Evaluation (ASE) study were analyzed. Correlations between outcomes, differences in predictive validity when using different outcomes and construct validity when comparing outcomes to a functional status outcome were analyzed.
In the ECC all definitions were highly correlated and performed similarly in predictive validity. When compared to functional status, RTW definitions in the ECC study performed fair to good on all time points. In the ASE study all definitions were highly correlated and performed similarly in predictive validity. The RTW definitions, however, failed to compare or compared poorly with functional status. Only one definition compared fairly on one time point.
Differently defined outcomes are highly correlated, give similar results in prediction, but seem to differ in construct validity when compared to functional status depending on societal context or possibly birth cohort. Comparison of studies using different RTW definitions appears valid as long as RTW status is not considered as a measure of functional status.
The risk of metastatic spread among patients with early-stage pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has not been well established. The authors sought to evaluate whether the new TNM staging systems proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) are prognostic for relapse-free survival (RFS) after surgical resection.
Patients with surgically resected localized or locally advanced pancreatic NETs treated at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center between 1999 and 2010 were assigned a stage (I-III) based on the AJCC and ENETS classifications. RFS and overall survival were measured using Kaplan-Meier methodology, with log-rank testing for evaluation of the 2 tumor staging systems. Multivariate analysis was performed controlling for tumor grade, location, surgery type, functional hormonal status, and incidental diagnosis.
The authors identified 123 patients with nonmetastatic, surgically resected pancreatic NETs. When using the AJCC classification, 5-year RFS rates for stages I through III were 78%, 53%, and 33%, respectively (P