Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of occupational and consumer safety, are exemplified and discussed.
To understand the magnitude and the national trends of mortality and hospitalization due to injuries among Canadian adolescents aged 15-19 years in 1979-2003.
Data on injury deaths and hospitalizations were obtained from the national Vital Statistical System and the Hospital Morbidity Database. Injuries were classified by intent and by mechanism.
In 15-19-year-olds, 75.6% of all deaths and 16.6% of all hospitalizations were attributed to injuries. Unintentional and self-inflicted injuries accounted for 70.2% and 24.1%, respectively, of total injury deaths as well as 72.6% and 17.4%, respectively, of total injury hospitalizations. The main causes for injury were motor vehicle traffic-related injury (MVT), suffocation, firearm, poisoning, and drowning for injury deaths; and MVT, poisoning, fall, struck by/against, and cut/pierce for injury hospitalizations. Mortality and hospitalization rates of total and unintentional injuries decreased substantially, whereas those of self-inflicted injuries decreased only slightly, with a small increase in females. Rates also decreased for all causes except suffocation, which showed an increasing trend. Males had higher rates for all intents and causes than females, except for self-inflicted injury hospitalization (higher in females). The territories and Prairie Provinces also had higher ones of total injuries and self-inflicted injuries than in other provinces.
Injury is the leading cause of deaths and a major source of hospitalizations in Canadian adolescents. However, prevention programs in Canada have made significant progress in reducing injury mortality and hospitalization. The graduated driver licensing, enforcement of seat-belt use, speed limit and alcohol control, and Canadian tough gun control may have contributed to the decline.
Non-response in survey studies is a growing problem and, being usually selective, it leads to under- or overestimation of health outcomes in the follow-up. We followed both respondents and non-respondents by registry linkage to determine whether there is a risk of death, related to non-response at baseline.
Sample data of biennial surveys to 12-18-year-old Finns in 1979-1997 were linked with national death registry up to 2001. The number of respondents was 62,528 (79.6%) and non-respondents 16,081 (20.4%). The average follow-up was 11.1 years, totalling 876,400 person-years. The risk of death between non-respondents and respondents was estimated by hazard ratios (HR).
The number of deaths per 100,000 person-years were 229 in non-respondents and 447 in respondents (HR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5-2.6). The hazard ratios of death were for intoxication 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9-5.4), for disease 3.1 (95% CI: 2.2-4.1), for violence-related injury 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.6) and for unintentional injury 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) in non-respondents vs. respondents. The association between non-response and death increased with age at baseline, and the increase persisted after the age of 25.
Our study demonstrated significantly increased rates of death among adolescent non-respondents in a follow-up. The highest hazard ratios were seen in disease- and violence-related deaths. The death rate varied between respondents and non-respondents by death type. Increased rates of death persisted beyond the age of 25.
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug 15;154(4):373-8411495861
Cites: J Public Health Med. 2002 Dec;24(4):285-9112546205
In this paper we discuss the Russian adult health crisis and its implications. Although some hope that economic growth will trigger improvements in health, we argue that a scenario is more likely in which the unfavorable health status would become a barrier to economic growth. We also show that ill health is negatively affecting the economic well-being of individuals and households. We provide suggestions on interventions to improve health conditions in the Russian Federation, and we show that if health improvements are achieved, this will result in substantial economic gains in the future.
Causes of pedestrian accidents (N = 534) were investigated for patients treated for injuries at the emergency unit of a hospital. Accidents in collisions with motor vehicles were the main cause (87.8%). Young children (0-9 years old) and the elderly (above 60 years of age) are the most vulnerable in terms of mortality rates observed in these age groups. Preponderance of males in pedestrian accidents was observed in the accident categories of collisions with motor vehicle and bicycle, whereas a slight preponderance of females was found in collisions with other traffic. The predominant age groups were located in the range from 0 through 19 years.
OBJECTIVE: This article tests whether different forms of community-level alcohol control significantly affect injury deaths in a population with extremely high injury mortality. METHOD: The 1981 Alaska local option law provides a natural experiment for studying how implementation of community level controls may be associated with changes in injury deaths, most of which are alcohol-related, among Alaska Natives living in small communities. The study compares population and community-specific death rates under different levels of alcohol control for the 97 communities that passed restrictions between 1980 and 1993 with the death rates in the same communities during periods when no restrictions were in place. RESULTS: Injury death rates were generally lower during periods when alcohol sales, importation or possession were restricted than when no restrictions were in place (wet). More restrictive controls (dry) significantly reduced homicides; less restrictive control options (damp) reduced suicides. Accident and homicide death rates fell, on average, by 74 and 66 per 100,000, respectively, for the 89 communities that banned sale and importation or possession. A control group of 61 small communities that did not change control status under the law showed no significant changes over time in accident or homicide death rates. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in accidental and homicide death rates are statistically significant, although these reduced rates remain 2.5 to 7 times national death rates. The isolated nature of Alaskan villages may explain why alcohol control has more effect in Alaska than has been found in studies of Native Americans living in other states.
A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug