The investigation of geographic variation in occupational injuries has received little attention. Young workers 15 to 24 years are of particular concern because they consistently show elevated occupational injury rates compared to older workers. The present study sought to: (a) to describe the geographic variation of work injuries; (b) to determine whether geographic variation remained after controlling for relevant demographic and job characteristics; (c) to identify the region-level factors that correlate with the geographic variation.
Using workers compensation claims and census data, we estimated claim rates per 100 full-time equivalents for 15 to 24 year olds in 46 regions in Ontario. A total of 21 region-level indicators were derived primarily from Census and Labour Force Survey data to reflect social and material deprivation of the region as well as demographic and employment characteristics of youth living in those areas.
Descriptive findings showed substantial geographic variation in young worker injury rates, even after controlling for several job and demographic variables. Region-level characteristics such as greater residential stability were associated with low work injury rates. Also, regions with the lowest claim rates tended to have proportionally fewer cuts and burns than high-claim-rate regions.
The finding of substantial geographic variation in youth claim rates even after controlling for demographic and job factors can aid in targeting prevention resource. The association between region-level indicators such as residential stability and youth work injury suggests that work injury prevention strategies can be integrated with other local economic development measures. The findings partially support the notion that work safety measures may be unevenly distributed with respect to regional socio-economic factors.
This study analyzed the database of Canadian Accident Injury Reporting and Evaluation (CAIRE) for the injuries reported from January 1986 to March 1996 in seven provinces at children's or general hospitals in Canada. In order to describe the characteristics of injuries, we compared the different categories of injuries by sex and by age groups, identified patterns of injuries, and detected the products causing injury to Canadian people. The results showed that there were 130,489 injury cases in Canada during the 10 years from 1986 to 1996. The 10-19 year age group had 57,582 cases, representing 44.13% of total injuries, and making it the group with the highest occurrence of injuries. The male injury rate (69.75%) was significantly higher than the female rate (30.25%) (P = 0.0001). Six areas were identified as priorities for intervention: 1) injuries occurring on playgrounds among children and youth; 2) sports and playground apparatus injuries and injuries sustained in transit among young people; 3) the top five causes of injuries; 4) diagnosis and treatment of injuries; 5) consumer products and safety; and 6) nature and physical sites of injuries. Further work is needed in: evaluating injury causes, comparing the results with reports from other countries and the necessary approaches and prevention measures to reduce and control injury occurrences to improve the quality of consumer products, and to protect the health of the population in Canada.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of two standards for on-site medical facilities in reducing lost-time injuries during the construction of the link across the Oresund sound between Sweden and Denmark. One medical facility employed licensed nurses, who had advanced medical assistance at their disposal. The other medical facility utilized first-aid-trained watchmen. The on-site medical facilities aimed both at providing immediate medical assistance to workers subjected to occupational injuries and at reducing lost worktime. METHODS: The distributions of injuries treated on-site (the worker resumed work after treatment) and injuries sent to hospitals or to specialists were compared for each type of injury and for each category of injured body part. RESULTS: The on-site medical facilities dealt, in particular, with the treatment of ocular injuries (21%), wounds (21%), and sprains or strains (15%). The study showed a statistically significant on-site treatment (and resume work) rate ratio of 3.3 between the nurse-based (76%) and the first-aid-based (23%) medical facility. CONCLUSIONS: The construction of the Oresund Link shows a need for on-site medical facilities, particularly at remote construction sites, and that it is essential that the medical personnel have both the qualifications and authorization to treat site-specific workplace injuries effectively in order to obtain high on-site treatment rates.
An important potential benefit of a jurisdiction developing an upper-level traffic safety policy statement, such as a strategic highway safety plan (SHSP) or a traffic safety action plan, is the creation of a manageable number of focus areas, known as emphasis areas. The responsible agencies in the jurisdiction can then direct their finite resources in a systematic and strategic way designed to maximize the effort to reduce the number and severity of roadway collisions. In the United States, the federal government through AASHTO has suggested 22 potential emphasis areas. In Canada, CCMTA's 10 potential emphasis areas have been listed for consideration. This study reviewed the SHSP and traffic safety action plan of 53 jurisdictions in North America, and conducted descriptive data analyses to clarify the issues that currently affect the selection and prioritization process of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We found that the current process relies heavily on high-level collision data analysis and communication among the SHSP stakeholders, but may not be the most efficient and effective way of selecting and prioritizing the emphasis areas and allocating safety improvement resources. This study then formulated a formal collision diagnosis test, known as the beta-binomial test, to clarify and illuminate the selection and the prioritization of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We developed numerical examples to demonstrate how engineers can apply the proposed diagnosis test to improve the selection and prioritization of individual jurisdictions' emphasis areas.
A sample of 187 medically treated injuries among fishermen was the basis for this study. Nearly half the injuries occurred while shooting or hauling fishing gear. The most common injuries were in the upper extremities (48.7%). Twenty-two percent of the injuries occurred while working with winches ropes and wires and about 30% were caused by falls or slips. Seventy-five percent of accidents occurred on trawlers, where the trawl doors (other boards) are a special hazard. Medical treatment ashore was delayed for more than 24 hours in 35% of the injuries, showing the need for providing optimal treatment facilities on board. Prevention measures should include technical improvements, safety training courses and efforts to enhance the motivation for safe work. The fishermen's proposals for prevention seem to be most useful and should be used to the full extent.
Children on farms experience high risks for fall injuries. This study characterized the causes and consequences of fall injuries in this pediatric population.
A retrospective case series was assembled from registries in Canada and the United States. A new matrix was used to classify each fall according to initiating mechanisms and injuries sustained on impact.
Fall injuries accounted for 41% (484/1193) of the case series. Twenty percent of the fall injuries were into the path of a moving hazard (complex falls), and 91% of complex falls were related to farm production. Sixty-one percent of complex falls from heights occurred while children were not working. Fatalities and hospitalized injuries were overrepresented in the complex falls.
Pediatric fall injuries were common. This analysis provides a novel look at this occupational injury control problem.
Previous studies indicate 20% of injuries represent 80% of injury costs in agriculture. To help prevent the most costly injuries, we aimed to identify characteristics and risk factors associated with serious injuries.
We analyzed insurance records of 93,550 self-employed Finnish farmers. We ranked injury causes by claim cost and used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for (any) injury and serious injury (injuries exceeding claim costs of 2000 euros).
A total of 5,507 compensated injuries occurred in 2002 (rate 5.9/100 person-years), and 1,167 or 21% of them (rate 1.25/100 person-years) were serious. The causes/sources resulting in highest average claim costs were motor vehicles; stairs, scaffoldings, and ladders; trailers and wagons; floors, walkways, and steps; other structures and obstacles; augers, mills, and grain handling equipment; horses; combines and harvesting equipment; tractor steps; and uneven and slippery terrain. Older age, male gender, higher income level, greater field size, residing on the farm, Finnish language (vs. Swedish), occupational health service (OHS) membership, and animal production were risk factors for injury. The risk factors for serious injury were similar; however, the effects of age, income level, and the raising of horses were more prominent. Language, residence, ownership status, and OHS membership were not risk factors for serious injury.
Cost-effective prevention efforts should address the following risk factors: older age, male gender, larger income and operation size, livestock production (particularly dairy, swine, and horses), motor vehicle incidents, falls from elevation, and slips, trips and falls.
to present time variations in the incidence of injuries on a community level.
all injuries which occurred in a defined population of the municipality of Harstad were registered prospectively from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1991. Variations over time in monthly incidence of seven types of injuries (home, traffic, street, sports, work, other, unknown) were analysed by the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Analysis (ARIMA).
a total of 9,685 injuries was registered during the six year follow-up period. No significant secular trend was observed for any of the analysed types of injuries. Series of monthly incidence of traffic, street, and sports injuries showed seasonal-dependent variations. Incidence of traffic injuries was highest during the summer months, while incidence of sports and street injuries was highest during the winter months.
both the existence of seasonal dependency in injury incidence and the relatively high random variations in monthly injury incidence imply that evaluation of community based injury control programmes should include incidence during at least a one year period before the intervention has started.