Firearm injuries significantly affect mortality rates in many states throughout the United States. We reviewed all deaths due to injuries in all state for 1985 to determine deaths from firearm injury in proportion to deaths from all injuries in each state. We then compared Texas data with those of other states. Death certificate data for Texas from 1976 through 1985 were used to describe Texas firearm mortality rates by age, gender, and race and to compare firearm injury with other causes of mortality in Texas. Texas ranked first among states in the proportion of injury deaths caused by firearms, with an annual firearm death rate of 21.2 per 10,000. Of the 30,906 firearm deaths recorded in Texas during the 10-year study period, 650 involved children. Black males had the highest firearm homicide rate (53.9 per 100,000 per year), and white males had the highest firearm suicide rate (15.7 per 100,000 per year). Firearms accounted for 11% of the total years of productive life lost. The economic cost of firearm deaths in Texas was estimated to be $40.7 billion per year. Strategies for preventing these deaths are discussed.