In the article about The First Naval Hospital, that became famous during the Great Patriotic War, the authors present the facts of the heroic work of the hospital and its staff under the hardest conditions of the Siege of Leningrad, in an atmosphere of constant shelling, its productive clinical and scientfic work during the war years (1941-1945). As a material for the preparation of this article were used documents of the Military-Medical Museum, factual information about the history of the hospital published in various sources.
The article is devoted to the anniversary of Consultation-and-diagnostic outpatient hospital of 442nd District military clinical hospital in Saint-Petersburg. This outpatient hospital was founded in on the 20th March 1938. Work of garrison outpatient hospital was especially difficult during the Great Patriotic War. Employees of this hospital heroically fulfilled their duties in conditions of severe blocade winter 1941-1942. The outpatient hospital was nominally garrison, in fact this hospital operated units of Leningrad front-line. In 1993 the garrison outpatient hospital was renamed as 104th Consultation-and-diagnostic. The main branch of activity is health maintenance of participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station and veterans (case follow up) belonging to special risk subunits. Nowadays there are 30 treatment-and-diagnostic departments including staff military physician board.
In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia.
Canada began to fortify its flour and bread with vitamin B when it entered the Second World War. The decision was informed by the biology of vitamin B and therefore I suggest that the complexity of this political maneuver can best be understood by considering the specificity of the biochemistry of vitamin B. In this paper I will show that the specific biology of vitamin B allowed the Canadian government the possibility of a healthier population under wartime conditions but also allowed the government a variety of means by which to develop and organize food processing practices to this end.
The goal of this report is to provide a framework for understanding and interpreting political, scientific and cultural attitudes towards drink driving in 20th-century Britain. Exploring the inherent conservatism of successive governments, Members of Parliament (MPs) and the public towards the issue during the interwar years, the contribution seeks to explain the shift from legislative paralysis to the introduction of the breathalyser in 1967.
Based on governmental, parliamentary and administrative records, the report follows a mainly narrative route. It places particular emphasis on connections between post-war extra-parliamentary and parliamentary movements for reform.
The paper follows a linear path from the 1920s to the 1970s. Britain lies at the heart of the story but comparisons are made with nations--particularly the Scandinavian states--which took radical steps to prosecute drinking and dangerous drivers at an early date.
The report underlines the vital post-war role played by Graham Page, leading parliamentary spokesman for the Pedestrians' Association; the centrality of the Drew Report (1959) into an 'activity resembling driving'; the pioneering Conservative efforts of Ernest Marples; and Barbara Castle's consolidating rather than radically innovative activities between 1964 and 1967.
Both before and after the Second World War politicians from both major parties gave ground repeatedly to major motoring organizations. With the ever-escalating growth of mass motorization in the 1950s, both Conservative and Labour governments agonized over gridlock and 'murder on the roads'. Barbara Castle finally took decisive action against drink drivers, but the ground had been prepared by Graham Page and Ernest Marples.
Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected.
To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family.
This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n?=?93?391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017.
Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated).
Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012.
Of the 93?391 study persons, 45?955 (49.2%) were women and 47?436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in 2012 among survivors was 45.4 (6.58) years. Female offspring of mothers evacuated to Sweden during childhood had an elevated risk of psychiatric hospitalization (hazard ratio for any type of psychiatric disorder: 2.04 [95% CI, 1.04-4.01]; hazard ratio for mood disorder: 4.68 [95% CI, 1.92-11.42]). There was no excess risk of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder among women whose fathers were exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy during World War II or among men whose mothers or fathers were exposed.
In a prior follow-up study of the Finnish evacuees, girls evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II were more likely to be hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder-in particular, a mood disorder-in adulthood than their nonevacuated sisters. The present study found that the offspring of these individuals were also at risk for mental health problems that required hospitalization and suggests that early-life adversities, including war-related exposures, may be associated with mental health disorders that persist across generations.
CommentIn: JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 1;75(1):5-6 PMID 29188290
FK506-binding protein 51 is involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene have been shown to interact with retrospectively self-reported early life stress (ELS) in patients with psychiatric disorders. We examined interactions between three selected FKBP5 SNPs and self-reported and objectively recorded ELS in relation to depressive symptoms in midlife.
This study comprised 1431 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants genotyped for FKBP5 SNPs shown to alter cortisol metabolism (rs1360780, rs9470080, and rs9394309). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at ages 61.5 years (time 1) and 63.4 years (time 2); 165 and 181 participants were separated from their parents in childhood as a result of evacuations during World War II as indicated by self-reports and the Finnish National Archives registry, respectively.
Associations between self-reported and objectively recorded ELS, but not stressful events in midlife, and the mean BDI score (average of time 1 and time 2) or mild to severe BDI scores (10-63 points at time 1 and time 2), or both, were moderated by the FKBP5 variants (p values for interactions .18). Mean BDI scores or odds for having mild to severe BDI scores, or both, increased according to number of minor alleles and haplotypes derived from these alleles in the separated groups, but not in the nonseparated groups.
FKBP5 variations in combination with self-reported and objectively recorded ELS predict more pronounced depressive symptoms in midlife. Our findings confirm previous retrospective findings in a prospective epidemiologic study setting.