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AIDS incidence rates in Europe and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7962
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
S. Franceschi
L. Dal Maso
C. La Vecchia
E. Negri
D. Serraino
Author Affiliation
Servizio di Epidemiologia, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano, Italy.
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
Age Factors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Comparative Study
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Information Systems
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the quantitative comparison of AIDS incidence statistics between countries and with other diseases using statistics based on age-standardized incidence rates instead of absolute number of cases. DESIGN: AIDS incidence rates for 19 countries belonging to the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, and for comparative purposes, the United States. METHODS: Incidence rates were standardized using the world standard population for all ages, from 1985 to 1992. The data were derived from the WHO European Non-Aggregate AIDS Dataset and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) AIDS Public Information Dataset, adjusted for reporting delays in each country. RESULTS: The AIDS incidence rate for men (81 in 1,000,000) in the United States was fourfold higher than the highest rate in a European country (Switzerland) in 1985; incidence rates in all other European countries, except France and Denmark, were below 10 in 1,000,000. Subsequently, AIDS incidence has increased more rapidly in southern Europe than in the rest of the continent. The estimated incidence rate for men in Spain (243 in 1,000,000) approached that in the United States (304 in 1,000,000) in 1992, and three additional countries (France, Switzerland and Italy) showed rates above 100 per million. The spread of the AIDS epidemic among women in some southern European countries was faster than in the United States. In Switzerland and Spain the standardized incidence rates in women were higher than in the United States by 1988 and 1992, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis trends in incidence rates avoids some weaknesses of AIDS statistics based on absolute numbers, and should become one of the standard tools for AIDS surveillance.
PubMed ID
7986418 View in PubMed
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Alcohol advertising bans and alcohol abuse: an international perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226519
Source
J Health Econ. 1991 May;10(1):65-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1991
Author
H. Saffer
Author Affiliation
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York University, NY 10003.
Source
J Health Econ. 1991 May;10(1):65-79
Date
May-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Advertising as Topic - legislation & jurisprudence
Alcohol Drinking - legislation & jurisprudence
Alcoholic Beverages - utilization
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Humans
Liver Cirrhosis - mortality
Models, Statistical
Public Policy
United States - epidemiology
World Health
Abstract
This paper examines the effect of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The data used in this study are a pooled time series from 17 countries for the period 1970 to 1983. The empirical results show that countries with bans on spirits advertising have about 16% lower alcohol consumption than countries with no bans and that countries with bans on beer and wine advertising have about 11% lower alcohol consumption than countries with bans only on spirits advertising.
Notes
Comment In: J Health Econ. 1993 Jul;12(2):213-2810127781
PubMed ID
10112150 View in PubMed
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Bacteria and diseases of unknown cause: hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181826
Source
J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 1;189(3):552-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2004
Author
Martin J Blaser
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, and New York Harbor Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. martin.blaser@med.nyu.edu
Source
J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 1;189(3):552-5
Date
Feb-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Ecology
Escherichia coli O157 - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Food Microbiology - standards
Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome - epidemiology - microbiology - physiopathology
Humans
United States - epidemiology
World Health
Notes
Comment On: J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 1;189(3):556-6314982069
PubMed ID
14745714 View in PubMed
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Cancer in older persons: an international issue in an aging world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17745
Source
Semin Oncol. 2004 Apr;31(2):128-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Rosemary Yancik
Lynn A G Ries
Author Affiliation
Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205, USA.
Source
Semin Oncol. 2004 Apr;31(2):128-36
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Biomedical research
Cost of Illness
Humans
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Population Dynamics
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
United States - epidemiology
World Health
Abstract
Persons age 65 years and older bear the greater burden of cancer in the United States and other industrial nations. A cross-national perspective using data from several population-based resources (eg, the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; US Bureau of Census; World Health Organization; and International Association for Research on Cancer) illustrates current and future demographic transitions in America in comparison with six industrial nations, and profiles cancer mortality in older persons across the selected nations--Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and United Kingdom. Mortality rates, age-standardized to the world population, are presented for major tumors. US aging and cancer profiles are highlighted. Demographic projections portend a substantial increase in numbers of older persons, and thus, imply resultant increases in cancer incidence and mortality in the elderly. By 2030, there will be larger proportions of persons in the age group most vulnerable to cancer. Information is needed on how age-related health problems affect cancer prevention, detection, prognosis, and treatment. A knowledge base as guidance in management of cancer in the elderly is lacking. Planning for effective prevention measures and improvement of treatment for the elderly is imperative to meet current and future quality cancer care needs.
PubMed ID
15112144 View in PubMed
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Death from the Nile crosses the Atlantic: the West Nile Fever story.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71157
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(11-12):820-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Troels Bygum Knudsen
Ove Andersen
Gitte Kronborg
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Hvidovre. Kettegaards Alle 30, 2650 Denmark.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(11-12):820-5
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - standards - trends
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Risk assessment
Survival Rate
Travel
United States - epidemiology
West Nile Fever - diagnosis - epidemiology
West Nile virus - classification - isolation & purification
World Health
Abstract
The present paper reviews the American epidemic of West Nile Fever (WNF), which is the largest recorded outbreak ever. The epidemiological consequences of introducing a novel and immunologically unknown pathogen in a previously unexposed population and the possible evolution of a more pathogenic viral strain are discussed. In view of recent reports of imported cases in Denmark the issue of possible disease spread to Scandinavia is likewise addressed. However, the main scope of the article is to provide the clinician with an overview of the natural history, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the disease.
PubMed ID
14723356 View in PubMed
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The Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST): design, subjects and methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72276
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1999;231:9-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
A. Eggleston
C. Farup
R. Meier
Author Affiliation
Janssen Ortho Inc, Toronto, Canada. aeggles1@joica.jnj.com
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1999;231:9-14
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cost of Illness
Dyspepsia - economics - epidemiology
Epidemiologic Research Design
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastrointestinal Diseases - economics - epidemiology
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Japan - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Quality of Life
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Switzerland - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Urban Population
World Health
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST) was designed to examine the 3-month prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms internationally and the impact of these symptoms on healthcare usage and quality of life. METHODS: The study sample was derived from the urban, adult (> or = 18 years) population of Canada, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland, the USA and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). Subjects were randomly recruited on a house-to-house basis in all countries except the USA and Italy, where telephone recruitment was carried out. Participants were interviewed in their own homes (house-to-house recruitment) or at a central location (telephone recruitment). The DIGEST questionnaire consisted of two sections. The first was a newly developed questionnaire consisting of 27 questions examining the prevalence, frequency and severity of upper GI symptoms, and their impact on healthcare use and daily activities. It also examined a number of demographic and socioeconomic variables. This part of the questionnaire was evaluated and pilot-tested before commencement of the survey. The second part of the questionnaire consisted of the local language version of the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI), a validated generic quality-of-life scale. Following completion of the survey, subjects with upper GI symptoms were classified on the basis of their most bothersome symptom into three symptom groups: gastro-oesophageal reflux-like, ulcer-like or dysmotility-like. CONCLUSIONS: Rigorous design, standardization of interview techniques and prior evaluation of the DIGEST questionnaire, provided a firm foundation for reliable data collection, analysis and interpretation.
PubMed ID
10565618 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Diabetes Care. 1998 Dec;21 Suppl 3:C7-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
B. Jönsson
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden. hebj@hhs.sem
Source
Diabetes Care. 1998 Dec;21 Suppl 3:C7-10
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cost of Illness
Diabetes Mellitus - economics - epidemiology
Disabled Persons
Humans
Incidence
Sweden - epidemiology
United Nations
United States - epidemiology
Voluntary Health Agencies
World Health Organization
Abstract
In assessing the economic impact of diabetes for a population, several factors should be considered, including the incidence and prevalence of the disease, the level of development of the health care system, and the population's overall level of economic development. Two different approaches have been used to address the economic impact of an increasing incidence of diabetes. The first approach uses disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) to measure intangible costs associated with diabetes. It combines the number of healthy life-years lost as a result of early mortality with those lost because of disability. The second approach, which has been used more frequently, is the cost-of-illness approach, which includes the concepts of direct, indirect, and intangible costs. A study conducted by the World Bank found that of the 1,362 million DALYs lost to all illnesses in 1990, 7.97 million DALYs were lost because of diabetes. In a 1992 study that assessed the direct costs of treating diabetes in the U.S., the American Diabetes Association used the cost-of-illness approach and found that the estimated total expenditure for 1 year was $45.2 billion. The 1994 epidemiological studies by Zimmet and the World Health Organization include estimates of increased prevalence of diabetes resulting from an increase in population. Estimates of the global cost of diabetes based on these studies reveal that diabetes accounts for 2-3% of the total health care budget in every country; therefore, an increase in diabetes incidence and prevalence translates into a significant economic impact.
PubMed ID
9850479 View in PubMed
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The epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67259
Source
Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Mar;137(3):486-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Ronald Klein
Tunde Peto
Alan Bird
Mylan R Vannewkirk
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53726, USA. kleinr@epi.ophth.wisc.edu
Source
Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Mar;137(3):486-95
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Progression
Humans
Incidence
Macular Degeneration - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Prevalence
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
United States - epidemiology
World Health
Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Evidence from epidemiologic data regarding the natural history of AMD and its risk factors are presented. RESULTS: Large, soft drusen associated with pigmentary abnormalities increase the risk of progression to advanced AMD. Large soft drusen may fade over time. Advanced AMD is more likely to be present in whites than blacks, despite the similar prevalence of soft drusen in both groups. Neovascular AMD is more frequent than geographic atrophy in most population-based studies in whites in America, Australia, and the Netherlands than in similar population-based studies in Iceland and Norway. After age and family history, there are few consistent relationships of risk factors to AMD. Of these, the relationship of smoking, hypertension, and cataract surgery to advanced AMD have been most consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term epidemiologic studies have provided information on the distribution and the natural history of AMD and its associated risk factors. It is not known what effect reduction of blood pressure and the cessation of smoking might have on the incidence and progression of AMD.
PubMed ID
15013873 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease: implications for control by vaccines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222070
Source
Vaccine. 1993;11(2):100-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
R E Black
Author Affiliation
Department of International Health, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.
Source
Vaccine. 1993;11(2):100-6
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial - biosynthesis - immunology
Antibodies, Viral - biosynthesis - immunology
Bacteria - immunology - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Bacterial Vaccines
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Developing Countries
Diarrhea - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Diarrhea, Infantile - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Humans
Immunity, Innate
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Prevalence
Travel
United States - epidemiology
Viral vaccines
Virulence
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Viruses - immunology - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
World Health
Abstract
Vaccines present perhaps the most attractive solution to the worldwide problem of diarrhoeal disease. Epidemiological evidence has important implications for the development and use of such vaccines, and results of studies on diarrhoeal diseases in developing and developed countries, in particular among children, and travellers' diarrhoea are reviewed. The virulence and pathogenicity of various enteropathogens are discussed, and the extent to which immunity may be acquired. It is concluded that the development of appropriate vaccines may be a complex task.
PubMed ID
8438608 View in PubMed
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Folic acid fortification prevents neural tube defects and may also reduce cancer risks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122710
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2012 Oct;101(10):1007-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Margaretha Jägerstad
Author Affiliation
Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Margaretha.Jagerstad@slu.se
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2012 Oct;101(10):1007-12
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Dietary Supplements - adverse effects - standards - statistics & numerical data
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Flour
Folic Acid - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Food, Fortified - adverse effects - standards - statistics & numerical data
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Mandatory Programs
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Neural Tube Defects - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nutritional Requirements
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - prevention & control
Prevalence
Program Evaluation
Risk assessment
United States - epidemiology
World Health
Abstract
The prevalence of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies ranges between 0.4 and 2/1000 pregnancies in EU. NTDs result in severe malformations and sometimes miscarriages. Children born with NTD suffer for the rest of their life of disability and chronic healthcare issues, and many women therefore choose termination of pregnancy if NTD is diagnosed prenatally. Women planning for pregnancy are recommended to eat 400 µg folic acid/d, whereas average figures across Europe indicate intakes of ~250 µg/d for women of fertile age, a gap that could be bridged by implementation of folic acid fortification. The results of mandatory folic acid fortifications introduced in USA and Canada are a decrease between 25 and 45% of NTD pregnancies.
Evidence-based NTD prophylaxis is now practised in more than 60 countries worldwide. EU countries worry over possible cancer risks, but ignore a wealth of studies reporting decreasing cancer risks with folate intakes at recommended levels. Currently, there are indications of a U-shaped relationship, that is, higher cancer risks at low folate intakes (1 mg/day), respectively. However neither the global World Cancer Research review nor EU's European Food Safety Authority report present data on increased cancer risk at physiological folate intake levels. Therefore, EU should act to implement folic acid fortification as NTD prophylaxis as soon as possible.
Notes
Comment In: Acta Paediatr. 2012 Oct;101(10):100622928788
PubMed ID
22783992 View in PubMed
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42 records – page 1 of 5.