The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior.
National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign.
Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01).
The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.
The article covers changes in occupational cardiovascular risk for workers of nonferrous,metallurgy. Findings are that exposure to noise up to 94 dB with length of service increases possible atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. With 5 years of service, risk of the predicted conditions increases by 40.5%. When occupational exposure lasts over 5 years, risk of arterial hypertension increases. A group of workers without exposure to occupational factors appeared to have no connection between length of service and metabolic syndrome and arterial hypertension. Risk evolution modelling proved that risk of functional disorders in nonferrous metallurgy workers becomes unacceptable after 5 years of service (cardiovascular disorders are critical).
The paper provides the results of assessment of prior and posterior occupational risks and those of questionnaire analysis in foundry shop workers from machinery enterprises. According to the data of attestation of job places, the working conditions of major foundry occupations were ascertained to correspond to class 3, grades 1 to 3. The prior risk for occupational respiratory diseases (RD) was defined as moderate whereas the posterior risk was high. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, more than half of the workers sought medical advice for bronchopulmonary pathology. Determination of whether there is, in terms of the etiological share, a cause-and-effect relationship between RDs and working conditions has shown that the occupation was highly responsible, which suggests that harmful industrial factors make a considerable contribution to the development of RDs in the workers of the enterprises under study.
INTRODUCTION/PROBLEM: Property damage incidents, workplace injuries, and safety programs designed to prevent them, are expensive aspects of doing business in contemporary industry. The National Safety Council (2002) estimated that workplace injuries cost $146.6 billion per year. Because companies are resource limited, optimizing intervention strategies to decrease incidents with less costly programs can contribute to improved productivity.
Systematic data collection methods were employed and the forecasting ability of a time-lag relationship between interventions and incident rates was studied using various statistical methods (an intervention is not expected to have an immediate nor infinitely lasting effect on the incident rate).
As a follow up to the initial work, researchers developed two models designed to forecast incident rates. One is based on past incident rate performance and the other on the configuration and level of effort applied to the safety and health program. Researchers compared actual incident performance to the prediction capability of each model over 18 months in the forestry operations at an electricity distribution company and found the models to allow accurate prediction of incident rates.
These models potentially have powerful implications as a business-planning tool for human resource allocation and for designing an optimized safety and health intervention program to minimize incidents. Depending on the mathematical relationship, one can determine what interventions, where and how much to apply them, and when to increase or reduce human resource input as determined by the forecasted performance.
Workers who develop occupational skin disease are often eligible for workers' compensation benefits; however, there is little known about the decision-making process for adjudicating claims submitted for work-related skin problems.
The objective of this pilot study was to test a file abstraction instrument and determine the nature of information that was available for decision-making.
Files submitted to the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) in 1995 for dermatitis were identified. The last 51 files were abstracted to collect information concerning demographics, physicians seen, information available in the claim file for decision making, as well as type of claim and outcome of the claim.
Approximately 70% of the claims were "no-lost-time" and one-third of total claims were accepted for compensation. Although there was reasonable information related to the clinical status, most claims had no information that related to workplace issues such as exposures or association with work. Claims that were for lost time or were accepted had more information available.
The pilot study has demonstrated that there is a lack of information related to workplace issues that would be important in decision-making. The study will be extended to examine the entire year's claims in order to develop a strategy to enhance the understanding of the WSIB and providers regarding the information necessary for decision-making and to determine methods to facilitate its collection.
"Safe Workplace"-a simplified and educational version of the Finnish building construction methodology involving safety walkarounds where a number of safety indicators are inspected and evaluated-is in widespread use in the Danish construction sector to evaluate physical safety standards proactively at construction work sites.
Data from the construction of the Copenhagen Metro were analyzed to determine the method's ability to predict injury risk related to joint responsibilities and individual worker responsibilities.
A statistically significant association between the risk level as measured by the Safe Workplace methodology and injury risk was found. The relative risk of injury increased with the number of safety indicators violated and was elevated for safety indicators reflecting both individual and joint safety responsibility. The observed injury risk was not elevated in the post-safety walkaround period for safety indicators of individual responsibility, but the joint responsibility indicators retained an elevated injury risk level.
The data support the hypothesis that safety walkarounds both predict and prevent injuries. Safety indicators of individual responsibility are more likely to be corrected than those of joint responsibility.
To investigate whether type of employment was related to work characteristics and health status at age 42 adjusted for health status at age 30 and whether gender moderates the associations.
Questionnaire data was used from a 27-year follow-up study of school-leavers carried out in Luleå in the north of Sweden (response rate 94%). The study population consisted of 877 (47.8% women) working respondents. Data were analysed by means of t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple linear regression analyses.
Men were more often self-employed, while more women had temporary types of employment. Moreover, men reported more control over work and less emotional exhaustion than women. Compared to permanently employed, self-employed (men and women) perceived more control over work and better health status (p