In a longitudinal cohort study, organizational climate and long-term effects of exposure to nasty teasing (aggression) at work were investigated. The baseline consisted of a representative sample of Danish employees in 1995 with a response rate of 80% (N = 5,652). Of these, 4,647 participated in the follow-up in 2000 (response rate 84%). In 1995, 6.3% were subjected to nasty teasing with no significant gender difference. At baseline, we found significant associations among nasty teasing, a negative organizational climate, and psychological health effects. In the follow-up analyses, associations were found between exposure to nasty teasing at baseline and psychological health problems at follow-up, even when controlled for organizational climate and psychological health at baseline and nasty teasing at follow-up. Stratified for gender, the follow-up associations were significant for women but not for men. Low coworker support and conflicts at baseline and teasing at follow-up mediated the effects on men.
This three-wave 35-year prospective study used the Job Demands-Resources model and life course epidemiology to examine how life conditions in adolescence (1961-1963) through achieved educational level and working conditions in early adulthood (1985) may be indirectly related to job burnout 35 years later (1998). We used data (N = 511) from the Finnish Healthy Child study (1961-1963) to investigate the hypothesized relationships by employing structural equation modeling analyses. The results supported the hypothesized model in which both socioeconomic status and cognitive ability in adolescence (1961-1963) were positively associated with educational level (measured in 1985), which in turn was related to working conditions in early adulthood (1985). Furthermore, working conditions (1985) were associated with job burnout (1998) 13 years later. Moreover, adult education (1985) and skill variety (1985) mediated the associations between original socioeconomic status and cognitive ability, and burnout over a 35-year time period. The results suggest that socioeconomic, individual, and work-related resources may accumulate over the life course and may protect employees from job burnout.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior.
National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign.
Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01).
The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.
As the Canadian population ages, there is a need to improve long-term care (LTC) services. An increased understanding of the positive work experiences of LTC staff may help attract more human health resources to LTC.
To describe the perceptions of the roles and work of nurses and care assistants in LTC from interprofessional perspectives.
This study used qualitative data collected from a larger mixed-methods study, Care by Design. The qualitative phase explored the lived experience of LTC staff from the perspectives of key stakeholders via focus groups and individual interviews.
One central theme that emerged from the study was that of LTC staff going "above and beyond" their clinical duties to care for residents. This above and beyond theme was categorized into subthemes including: 1. familial bonds between residents and staff; 2. staff spending additional time with residents; 3. the ability to provide comfort to family members; and 4. staff dedication during end-of-life care.
The findings show that staff develop a kinship with residents, demonstrate respect towards residents' families and provide comfort at the end-of-life. In emphasizing these themes of positive and fulfilling work, the present study provides insight into why staff work in LTC.
It has become clear that nursing is a high-risk occupation with regards to stress-related diseases. In this study, we were interested in nurses' experiences of stress and the emotions arising from stress at work. Results showed that nurses experienced negative stress which was apparently related to the social environment in which they worked. Four nurses were interviewed. The method used was grounded theory. Analysis of the interviews singled out absence of response as the core category. Recurring stressful situations obviously caused problems for the nurses in their daily work. Not only did they lack responses from their supervisors, they also experienced emotions of frustration, powerlessness, hopelessness and inadequacy, which increased the general stress experienced at work. Our conclusion is that the experience of absence of response leads to negative stress in nurses.
The effects of workplace interventions on sickness absence are poorly understood, in particular in ageing workers.
To analyse the effects of a senior programme on sickness absence among blue-collar food industry workers of a food company in Finland.
We followed up 129 employees aged 55 years or older, who participated in a senior programme (intervention group), and 229 employees of the same age from the same company who did not participate (control group). Total sickness absence days and spells of 1-3, 4-7, 8-21 and >21 days were recorded for the members of the intervention group from the year before joining the programme and for the control group starting at age 54 years. Both groups were followed for up to 6 years.
The median number of sickness absence days per person-year increased significantly from baseline in both groups during the follow-up. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had increased risk for 1-3 days spells [rate ratio 1.34 (1.21-1.48)] and 4-7 days spells [rate ratio 1.23 (1.07-1.41)], but the risk for >21 days spells was decreased [rate ratio 0.68 (0.53-0.88)] after participation in the senior programme.
A programme to enhance individual work well-being in ageing workers may increase short-term but reduce long-term sickness absence.
Over the last decades, psychosocial factors were identified by many studies as significant predictive variables in the development of disability related to common low back disorders, which thus contributed to the development of biopsychosocial prevention interventions. Biopsychosocial interventions were supposed to be more effective than usual interventions in improving different outcomes. Unfortunately, most of these interventions show inconclusive results. The use of screening questionnaires was proposed as a solution to improve their efficacy. The aim of this study was to validate a new screening questionnaire to identify workers at risk of being absent from work for more than 182 cumulative days and who are more susceptible to benefit from prevention interventions.
Injured workers receiving income replacement benefits from the Quebec Compensation Board (n = 535) completed a 67-item questionnaire in the sub-acute stage of pain and provided information about work-related events 6 and 12 months later. Reliability and validity of the 67-item questionnaire were determined respectively by test-retest reliability and internal consistency analysis, as well as by construct validity analyses. The Cox regression model and the maximum likelihood method were used to fix a model allowing calculation of a probability of absence of more than 182 days. Criterion validity and discriminative capacity of this model were calculated.
Sub-sections from the 67-item questionnaire were moderately to highly correlated 2 weeks later (r = 0.52-0.80) and showed moderate to good internal consistency (0.70-0.94). Among the 67-item questionnaire, six sub-sections and variables (22 items) were predictive of long-term absence from work: fear-avoidance beliefs related to work, return to work expectations, annual family income before-taxes, last level of education attained, work schedule and work concerns. The area under the ROC curve was 73%.
The significant predictive variables of long-term absence from work were dominated by workplace conditions and individual perceptions about work. In association with individual psychosocial variables, these variables could contribute to identify potentially useful prevention interventions and to reduce the significant costs associated with LBP long-term absenteeism.
The aim was to explore the ambulance service as experienced by present and former employees.
Over the last decade, the number of ambulance assignments has increased annually by about 10%, and as many as 50% of all ambulance assignments are considered non-urgent. This raises questions about which assignments the Ambulance Service (AS) is supposed to deal with.
Data were collected from three focus group interviews with a total of 18 present and former employees of the Swedish AS. An inductive qualitative analysis method developed by Krueger was chosen.
Five themes emerged in the analysis: "Poor guidance for practice", "An unclear assignment", "Being a gate keeper", "From saving lives to self-care" and "Working in no man's land", which together constitute the AS.
Present and former employees of the AS in Sweden describe their mission as unclear and recognize the lack of consensus and a clearly developed mission statement. Furthermore, expectations and training mainly focus on emergency response, which is contrary to the reality of the ambulance clinicians' everyday work.
The workplace health promotion program, POWERPLAY, was developed, implemented, and comprehensively evaluated among men working in four male-dominated worksites in northern British Columbia, Canada. The purpose of this study was to explore the POWERPLAY program's acceptability and gather recommendations for program refinement. The mixed-method study included end-of-program survey data collected from 103 male POWERPLAY program participants, interviews with workplace leads, and field notes recorded during program implementation. Data analyses involved descriptive statistics for quantitative data and inductive analysis of open-ended questions and qualitative data. Among participants, 70 (69%) reported being satisfied with the program, 51 (51%) perceived the program to be tailored for northern men, 56 (62%) believed the handouts provided useful information, and 75 (74%) would recommend this program to other men. The findings also highlight program implementation experiences with respect to employee engagement, feedback, and recommendations for future delivery. The POWERPLAY program provides an acceptable approach for health promotion that can serve as a model for advancing men's health in other contexts.