In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood.
To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work.
During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n?=?2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets.
Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed.
The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.
An international comparison study of women's occupational health issues was carried out in 2000 for the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore. The study was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program.
The objective was to compare the issues, risk factors, social determinants, and challenges in women's occupational health, according to the status of economic development as defined by the World Bank.
Data were collected through 27 key informant interviews of high-ranking government officials and senior researchers, self-administered questionnaires on country or regional statistics and 16 courtesy calls.
Results indicated that women's occupational health problems common in these countries or regions included women's long hours of work (double workday), shift work and a caring role for family and friends. Problems reported in developing countries but not developed countries included poor access to training and protective equipment, and insufficient legislation to protect women's rights. Problems reported in developed countries but not in developing countries included obesity, smoking and not including women in health research.
This paper provides insights into the changing environment in the workplace, such as increasing participation of women in the paid workforce and changes in gender differences due to the changing country economy, for improving women's occupational health.
Comment In: Occup Med (Lond). 2005 Oct;55(7):513-416251368
The first purpose of this study was to compare the psychosocial working conditions and mental health of our sample of maritime engine officers with a sample of British shore-based professional engineers. The second purpose was to analyse the relationship between the psychosocial working conditions onboard and mental strain for the Swedish maritime engine officers.
There were a total of 731 engine officers in the Swedish merchant fleet, almost all males with higher education. The British comparison sample consisted of 312 professional shore-based engineers. A questionnaire was distributed to the Swedish engine officers with a modified version of the JCQ for the DC-S model, the Role conflict and Ambiguity scale, and two items on family-work inter-role conflicts (WFI/FWI), as workload indicators. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) were used as strain indicators.
There were no significant differences in perceived job stain or in WFI/FWI between the Swedish engine officers and the British professional engineers in perceived job strain. While the British shore-based engineers reported significantly higher role ambiguity the Swedish engine officers perceived a significantly higher degree of role conflict and higher perceived stress. Hierarchic linear regression analysis showed that the Role Stress was strongly related to perceived stress (R(2) = 0.319) as well as to mental health (R(2) = 0.222). When introduced in the second step the DC-S model was significantly related to the outcome measures, as was WFI/FWI when finally introduced.
The main source of the high degree of perceived stress among the engine officers does not seem to be the job content but may rather be understood from an interactional perspective, where conflicting requirements are directed towards the individual officer. It can be assumed that the fast technological and organizational changes and the increased pressure for economic profitability that characterize the shipping industry have attenuated these role conflicts.
We explored the relationship of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery. Nurses/nursing assistants (n = 95) were recruited from wards that belonged to either the top (high-strain group, HJS) or the bottom (low-strain group, LJS) job strain quartiles of a Job Content Questionnaire survey of employees in five health care districts and four cities in Finland. Three-week field measurements during naturally occurring shift schedules and a subset of pre-selected shift arrangements consisted of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, perceived workload and recovery. The HJS group (n = 42) had more single days off and quick returns than the LJS group (n = 53, p
The integral health indices (biological age, age-related individual physiological features during a long-term (during a shift) contact with occupational allergens and working factors, the body's wear rates, and functional adaptive processes under hazardous working conditions) were studied in workers having dangerous jobs.
Studies have shown that physicians are subject to high stress levels that can lead to mental health problems. Ophthalmologists are facing particularly high pressures because of shortages in their number and lack of resources. This study describes the state of mental health of Quebec's ophthalmologists and identifies certain elements of their work environment and personal lives that may contribute to problems.
This cross-sectional study uses self-report questionnaires, including validated instruments, as well as instruments created for the study. A total of 133 out of 266 Quebec's ophthalmologists participated in the study.
More than 35% of ophthalmologists reported high levels of burnout and psychological distress. The 5 main occupational stressors were growth in demand for services (49.2%), shortage of ophthalmologists (48.1%), amount of work to be done (45.4%), budgetary pressures (44.6%), and repeated training of new work teams (41.9%). Self-acceleration is the defensive strategy used most often to deal with work overload. Nearly half (47.4%) reported having problems reconciling work and personal life. The mean scores indicate that ophthalmologists received little recognition from administration.
Work overload and systemic organizational deficiencies are burdening ophthalmologists in Quebec. They constantly work harder to preserve their professional ideals, but they receive little recognition from the administration. The levels of distress observed in this context point to the need for the authorities to take action to improve practice conditions. The situation is urgent because population aging has already begun to cause a sharp increase in demand, and younger physicians appear to be suffering most from work overload and burnout.
This study was undertaken to test the applicability of using a standardized questionnaire for measuring public health nurse (PHN) job satisfaction and to determine whether or not scores changed over 30 months. The importance of establishing a method for ongoing measurement of PHN job satisfaction was underscored by changing directions in practice and an emphasis on building public health capacity.
A 30-month interval, repeated measures descriptive survey design was used.
A randomly selected sample of 87 PHNs employed within 1 Canadian regional health authority participated.
The survey questionnaire, the Index of Worklife Satisfaction, was designed to measure the importance of and satisfaction with 6 components of job satisfaction.
Pay and autonomy were the most important components; the order of the 4 remaining components changed from first to second surveys. Professional status, autonomy, and interaction were the most satisfying components; PHN satisfaction with professional status and interaction improved significantly over 30 months. A majority of subjects reported that direct client care/client response/making a difference were worklife aspects providing them with most satisfaction.
A valid, reliable questionnaire suitable for ongoing measurement was tested with PHNs, and baseline levels of their job satisfaction were established.
A case-referent study assessed the association between medically certified sick leave from work and some occupational characteristics--namely, two work load indices (nurse patient ratio and patients' average duration of stay) and hospital and care unit. Study participants were nurses from seven general hospitals in Québec City who had been employed for at least six months at the time of study. Cases (n = 184) experienced at least one episode of medically certified sick leave for a diagnosis "most likely to be related to work load" between 1 January 1984 and 31 May 1987. Referents (n = 1165) were chosen from subjects who had no such leave, whatever the medical reason, and were matched to cases by the incidence density sampling method. Occupational data were collected from employment records and administrative files. Analysis was by multiple logistic regression. Significant associations were found between sick leave and nurse-patient ratio among head nurses, patient's duration of stay, and one hospital. Sick leave was more frequent among full time permanent nurses and among those on night and evening schedules. These associations were independent of age, duration of service in this hospital or in the actual job assignment, and care unit. This study supports the relevance of using sick leave as a non-specific indicator of health out-comes.
This paper presents the findings from a survey of Finnish mental health and psychiatric nurses. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the current state of clinical supervision, and ascertain the levels of burnout and job satisfaction experienced by these health care professionals. Clinical supervision was found beneficial for mental health and psychiatric health care professionals in terms of their job satisfaction and levels of stress. The findings seem to demonstrate that efficient clinical supervision is related to lower burnout, and inefficient supervision to increasing job dissatisfaction.