The study investigated whether occupational accident risks were equally distributed across age categories over time in the context of production reorganization and work rationalization in a Swedish iron ore mine between 1980 and 1993. Three phases of reorganization, defined by productivity levels, and four age categories were related to age-related accident risk ratios using the Poisson-regression method. Accident risk ratios (ARRs) were found systematically to be higher during the two first phases and also for younger workers, in the cases of both nonspecific and specific accident risks. The steady reduction in accident rates observed did not favor all age groups of workers to the same extent. For two accident patterns out of five, workers in their thirties and forties recorded higher ARRs than those in their fifties.
In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood.
To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work.
During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n?=?2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets.
Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed.
The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.
In the literature there are discussions on the choice of outcome and the need for more longitudinal studies of musculoskeletal disorders. The general aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze musculoskeletal neck pain, in a group of young adults. Specific aims were to determine whether psychosocial factors, computer use, high work/study demands, and lifestyle are long-term or short-term factors for musculoskeletal neck pain, and whether these factors are important for developing or ongoing musculoskeletal neck pain.
Three regression models were used to analyze the different outcomes. Pain at present was analyzed with a marginal logistic model, for number of years with pain a Poisson regression model was used and for developing and ongoing pain a logistic model was used. Presented results are odds ratios and proportion ratios (logistic models) and rate ratios (Poisson model). The material consisted of web-based questionnaires answered by 1204 Swedish university students from a prospective cohort recruited in 2002.
Perceived stress was a risk factor for pain at present (PR = 1.6), for developing pain (PR = 1.7) and for number of years with pain (RR = 1.3). High work/study demands was associated with pain at present (PR = 1.6); and with number of years with pain when the demands negatively affect home life (RR = 1.3). Computer use pattern (number of times/week with a computer session > or = 4 h, without break) was a risk factor for developing pain (PR = 1.7), but also associated with pain at present (PR = 1.4) and number of years with pain (RR = 1.2). Among life style factors smoking (PR = 1.8) was found to be associated to pain at present. The difference between men and women in prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was confirmed in this study. It was smallest for the outcome ongoing pain (PR = 1.4) compared to pain at present (PR = 2.4) and developing pain (PR = 2.5).
By using different regression models different aspects of neck pain pattern could be addressed and the risk factors impact on pain pattern was identified. Short-term risk factors were perceived stress, high work/study demands and computer use pattern (break pattern). Those were also long-term risk factors. For developing pain perceived stress and computer use pattern were risk factors.
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Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) are a common reason for ambulatory visits, and 35% are treated with an antibiotic. Antibiotic use for VRIs is not recommended, and it promotes antibiotic resistance. Effective patient-physician communication is critical to address this problem. Recognizing the importance of physician communication skills, licensure examinations were reformed in the United States and Canada to evaluate these skills.
To assess whether physician clinical and communication skills, as measured by the Canadian clinical skills examination (CSE), predict antibiotic prescribing for VRI in ambulatory care.
A total of 442 Quebec general practitioners and pediatricians who wrote the CSE in 1993-1996 were followed from 1993 to 2007, and their 159,456 VRI visits were identified from physician claims.
The outcome was an antibiotic prescription from a study physician dispensed within 7 days of the VRI visit. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between antibiotic prescribing for VRI and CSE score, adjusting for physician, patient, and encounter characteristics.
Better clinical and communication skills were associated with a reduction in the risk of antibiotic prescribing, but only for female physicians. Every 1-standard deviation increase in CSE score was associated with a 19% reduction in the risk of antibiotic prescribing (risk ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.97). Better clinical skills were associated with an even greater reduction in risk among female physicians with higher workloads (risk ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.79).
Physician clinical and communication skills are important determinants of antibiotic prescribing for VRI and should be targeted by future interventions.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether psychosocial stress defined as high strain based on the job demand-control model increases risk for atrial fibrillation.
The present study comprised 6035 men born between 1915 and 1925 and free from previous coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and stroke at baseline (1974-1977). Work-related psychosocial stress was measured using a job-exposure matrix for the job demand-control model based on occupation at baseline. The participants were followed from baseline examination until death, hospital discharge or 75 years of age, using the Swedish national register on cause of death and the Swedish hospital discharge register for any registration for atrial fibrillation, resulting in the identification of 436 cases. Data were analysed with Cox regression models with atrial fibrillation as the outcome using high strain as the explanatory variable adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and socioeconomic status.
There was an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in relation to high strain (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.75). When the four categories of the job-strain model were included and low strain was used as reference, the risk for high strain decreased (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.82).
Exposure to occupational psychosocial stress defined as high strain may be associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation. The observed increase in risk is small and residual confounding may also be present.
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Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
To examine individual as well as joint associations of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations in initially well-functioning middle-aged workers.
This study is based on 6-year follow-up data of the Danish Longitudinal Study on Work, Unemployment and Health. Physical workload was reported at baseline and categorised as light, moderate or heavy. Baseline leisure time physical activity level was categorised as sedentary or active following the current recommendations on physical activity. Incidence of mobility limitations in climbing stairs and running among initially well-functioning workers (n=3202 and n=2821, respectively) was assessed during follow-up.
Higher workload increased whereas active leisure time decreased the risk of developing mobility limitations. The incidence of limitations increased progressively with higher workload regardless of level of leisure time physical activity, although the risks tended to be higher among those with sedentary leisure time compared with their active counterparts. All in all, the risk for onset of mobility limitations was highest among those with heavy workload combined with sedentary leisure time and lowest among those with light workload combined with active leisure time.
Although leisure time physical activity prevents development of mobility decline, high workload seems to accelerate the progression of mobility limitations among both those with active and sedentary leisure time. Therefore, efforts should be made to recommend people to engage in physical activity regardless of their physical workload.
AIMS: The aim of this study is to analyse how increasing demands from work and family life affect the level of strain and whether there are any significant gender differences in this respect. This is be done by testing the following hypotheses: An increase in work and family demands causes (a) an increased risk of suffering from fatigue; (b) an increased need for working fewer hours. METHODS: The hypotheses are analysed by using a longitudinal data set consisting of nearly 9,000 Swedish individuals. RESULTS: Multiple demands increase the risk of suffering from fatigue among both women and men, but it is only among women that an increase in the percentage desiring a reduction in their working hours can be found. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the role stress theory, especially among women.
The authors of this study addressed burnout experiences (generally defined as chronic depletion of an individual's energetic resources') over time in relation to other factors (e.g., distress, sleep difficulties, job demands, etc.) among foreign-born women and Swedish native women living in Stockholm. The study design was a longitudinal panel survey with two waves one year apart. In the first wave, 3,616 of 6,000 randomly selected women took part, and 2,300 of the initial 3,616 women also participated in the second wave; 427 were foreign-born women, and 1,873 were Swedish native women. Baseline/emerging distress, emerging sleep difficulties, worsening general social support, job demands at baseline/escalating during the assessment period, emerging unemployment, constraints in social support at work, and sustained/emerging financial strain were associated with future burnout, regardless of background. More foreign-born women than Swedish native women reported burnout, with these differences maintained at one-year follow-up. The factors related to burnout were largely the same in both groups, but smoking and cardiovascular disease were related to burnout only among foreign-born women. Younger age, job demands, and working hours were associated with burnout among Swedish native women. The authors found that the women had concurrent problems such as burnout, distress, and sleep problems, but foreign background was not independently related to burnout.
BACKGROUND: Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i) and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale) were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI), Burnout (OLBI), Depression (MDI) at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI) were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. RESULTS: 98 (77%) responded on both occasions, 80 (63%) of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27%) had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities should be available.
Major depression is a prevalent mental disorder in the working population. Improving the work environment may reduce the risk of major depression. The authors examined data from the longitudinal cohort of the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 1994-1995 to 2004-2005. Survey participants were classified into 4 groups by changes in job strain status from 1994-1995 to 2000-2001 (no change in low job strain, no change in high job strain, changing from high to low job strain, and changing from low to high job strain). The incidence proportion of major depressive episodes in each of the 4 groups was 4.0%, 8.0%, 4.4%, and 6.9%, respectively. Participants who reported a change from high to low job strain had a risk of major depression similar to those exposed to persistently low job strain. Among those exposed to persistent high job strain, only participants who reported good or excellent health at baseline had a higher risk of major depression, but those who reported fair or poor health did not. Reducing job strain may have positive impacts on the risk of depression. Self-rated health is a strong predictor of depression and plays an important role in the relation between job strain and depression.