The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors (in particular ageism) at the workplace and older workers' retirement plans, while taking health and workability of the employee into account.
In the fall and winter of 2008, self-report data on work environment, health, workability and retirement plans were collected in a representative national sample (n = 3,122) of Danish employees 50 years or older. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyse associations in a cross-sectional design. Predictor variables were standardized.
In analyses adjusted for socio-demography, socio-economy, health, workability and work performance, 4 out of 6 examined psychosocial factors (ageism, lack of recognition, lack of development possibilities, lack of predictability) were significantly associated with plans of early retirement (OR: 1.10-1.13). Stratified on gender, three psychosocial factors (ageism, lack of recognition, lack of development possibilities) remained significant for men (OR: 1.15-1.25) and none for women. In particular was the association between retirement plans and ageism highly significant in the male subgroup, but no association was found in the female subgroup.
Ageism, lack of recognition and lack of development possibilities are associated with older male workers' retirement plans in our analyses. Workability has the strongest association with retirement plans for both genders.
To determine minimally important differences (MIDs) for scales in the first version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ).
Data were taken from two separate studies: a national population survey (N = 1062), and an intervention study at 14 workplaces (N = 1505). On the basis of the population survey, the MID for each COPSOQ scale was calculated as one-half of a standard deviation (0.5 SD). For the core COPSOQ scales on ''Quantitative demands'', ''Influence at work'', ''Predictability'', ''Social support (from colleagues and supervisors, respectively)'', and ''Job satisfaction'', the MIDs were evaluated in the intervention study, where score differences for the scales were linked to the respondents' global self-evaluation of the impact of the interventions. The scales were scored from 0 to 100 in both studies.
The MIDs calculated as 0.5 SD were, on average, 9.2 (range 6.8-14.9) for the long version scales, and 10.8 (range 7.6-14.9) for the medium-length version scales. The analysis of the self-evaluated changes on the scale scores for the core COPSOQ scales showed that the anchor-based estimates of MID were generally lower than 0.5 SD.
We recommend the following MID values for the COPSOQ scales: ''Quantitative demands'', 0.3 SD; ''Influence'', 0.2 SD; ''Predictability'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from colleagues'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from supervisor'', 0.7 SD; and ''Job satisfaction'', 0.4 SD. For all other COPSOQ scales, where we do not have anchor-based results, we recommend the conventional MID value of 0.5 SD.
By linkage of national registries, we investigated the risk of longterm sickness absence (LTSA) = 3 weeks in a large cohort of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-patients. The study aimed to (1) estimate the risk of LTSA for patients with RA compared with the general population, (2) examine whether the risk of LTSA has changed in recent years, and (3) evaluate the effect of other risk factors for LTSA (e.g., physical work demands, age, sex, education, and psychiatric and somatic comorbidities).
A total of 6677 patients with RA aged 18-59 years in the years 1994-2011 were identified in registries and compared with 56,955 controls from the general population matched by age, sex, and city size. The risk of LTSA was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models with late entry, controlling for other risk factors and assuming separate risks in the first year after diagnosis and the following years.
Compared with the general population, patients with RA had increased risk of LTSA in the first year after diagnosis (HR 5.4 during 1994-1999, 95% CI 4.2-6.8) and in following years (HR 2.4, 95% CI 2.1-2.8). For established RA (> 1 yr after diagnosis), the excess was 20% lower in 2006-2011 (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.2) compared with 1994-1999 (p
To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE).
We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a one-year register based follow up for long-term sickness absence. DIF was evaluated against age, gender, education, social class, public/private sector employment, and job type using ordinal logistic regression. DIE was evaluated against job satisfaction and self-rated health (using ordinal logistic regression), against depressive symptoms, burnout, and stress (using multiple linear regression), and against long-term sick leave (using a proportional hazards model). We used a cross-validation approach to counter the risk of significant results due to multiple testing.
Out of 1,052 tests, we found 599 significant instances of DIF/DIE, 69 of which showed both practical and statistical significance across two independent samples. Most DIF occurred for job type (in 20 cases), while we found little DIF for age, gender, education, social class and sector. DIE seemed to pertain to particular items, which showed DIE in the same direction for several outcome variables.
The results allowed a preliminary identification of items that have a positive impact on construct validity and items that have negative impact on construct validity. These results can be used to develop better shortform measures and to improve the conceptual framework, items and scales of the COPSOQ II.
We conclude that tests of DIF and DIE are useful for evaluating construct validity.
The study tested the hypothesis that a one-item workability measure represented an assessment of the fit between resources (the individuals' physical and mental health and functioning) and workplace demands and that this resource/demand fit was a mediator in the prediction of sickness absence. We also estimated the relative importance of health and work environment for workability and sickness absence.
Baseline data were collected within a Danish work and health survey (3,214 men and 3,529 women) and followed up in a register of sickness absence. Probit regression analysis with workability as mediator was performed for a binary outcome of sickness absence. The predictors in the analysis were as follows: age, social class, physical health, mental health, number of diagnoses, ergonomic exposures, occupational noise, exposure to risks, social support from supervisor, job control and quantitative demands.
High age, poor health and ergonomic exposures were associated with low workability and mediated by workability to sickness absence for both genders. Low social class and low quantitative demands were associated with low workability and mediated to sickness absence among men. The mediated part was from 11 to 63 % of the total effect for the significant predictors.
Workability mediated health, age, social class and ergonomic exposures in the prediction of sickness absence. The health predictors had the highest association with both workability and sickness absence; physical work environment was higher associated with the outcomes than psychosocial work environment. However, the explanatory value of the predictors for the variance in the model was low.
The purpose of this study was to describe psychosocial work environment inequalities among wage earners in Spain and Denmark.
Data came from the Spanish COPSOQ (ISTAS 21) and the Danish COPSOQ II surveys both performed in 2004-05 and based on national representative samples of employees with a 60% response rate. Study population was 3,359 Danish and 6,685 Spanish women and men. Only identical items from both surveys were included to construct 18 psychosocial scales. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to the European Socioeconomic Classification System. Analysis included ordinal logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis after categorizing all scales.
A relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment in both Denmark and Spain was observed, with wider social inequalities in Spain for many scales, describing a strong interaction effect between socioeconomic status and country.
Socioeconomic status is related to psychosocial work environment and some adverse psychosocial conditions tend to cluster in lower socioeconomic status groups in both Spain and Denmark. This effect could be modified by a country's characteristics, such as economic and labour market structures, normative regulations and industrial relations including work organization. Hence, preventive strategies to reduce social inequalities in working conditions should consider the combination of actions at the macro and micro levels.
Reliabilities of the work environment questionnaire Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) have previously been estimated by Cronbach's alpha, but since the internal consistency assumption may not apply to all COPSOQ scales, Cronbach's alpha may underestimate true reliability. This study aims to evaluate reliability in a test-retest design.
We analyzed postal questionnaire data from 349 persons (of whom 283 were employees) who completed two forms with a median interval of 22 (range 6-65) days between baseline and follow-up. Test-retest reliabilities were estimated by the intraclass correlation (ICC). For scales where the internal consistency assumption was theoretically plausible, reliabilities were also estimated by Cronbach's alpha and by Green's test-retest alpha.
With one exception, the ICC estimated reliabilities of the COPSOQ scales were adequate or good (range 0.70-0.89). A scale concerning mutual trust between employees had a low reliability of 0.64. Among the scales where the internal consistency assumption was plausible, Cronbach's alpha was adequate or good (0.75-0.85) for seven out of eight scales. Green's retest alpha was adequate or good for six out of eight scales (0.72-0.81).
Standard criteria for acceptable intraclass correlation reliability were achieved for all COPSOQ scales but one. The test-retest design and intraclass correlation appears to be more appropriate than Cronbach's alpha for assessing the reliability of psychosocial work environment scales.
The aim of the present paper is to present the development of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II).
The development of COPSOQ II took place in five main steps: (1) We considered practical experience from the use of COPSOQ I, in particular feedback from workplace studies where the questionnaire had been used; (2) All scales concerning workplace factors in COPSOQ I were analyzed for differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to gender, age and occupational status; (3) A test version of COPSOQ II including new scales and items was developed and tested in a representative sample of working Danes between 20 and 59 years of age. In all, 3,517 Danish employees participated in the study. The overall response rate was 60.4%; (4) Based on psychometric analyses, the final questionnaire was developed; and (5) Criteria-related validity of the new scales was tested.
The development of COPSOQ II resulted in a questionnaire with 41 scales and 127 items. New scales on values at the workplace were introduced including scales on Trust, Justice and Social inclusiveness. Scales on Variation, Work pace, Recognition, Work-family conflicts and items on offensive behaviour were also added. New scales regarding health symptoms included: Burnout, Stress, Sleeping troubles and Depressive symptoms. In general, the new scales showed good criteria validity. All in all, 57% of the items of COPSOQ I were retained in COPSOQ II.
The COPSOQ I concept has been further developed and new validated scales have been included.