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20 records – page 1 of 2.

Accuracy of genomic selection for growth and wood quality traits in two control-pollinated progeny trials using exome capture as the genotyping platform in Norway spruce.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299456
Source
BMC Genomics. 2018 Dec 18; 19(1):946
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-18-2018
Author
Zhi-Qiang Chen
John Baison
Jin Pan
Bo Karlsson
Bengt Andersson
Johan Westin
María Rosario García-Gil
Harry X Wu
Author Affiliation
Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
BMC Genomics. 2018 Dec 18; 19(1):946
Date
Dec-18-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Exome
Genetic markers
Genomics - methods
Genotype
Models, Genetic
Models, Statistical
Norway
Phenotype
Picea - genetics - growth & development
Plant Breeding
Pollination
Selection, Genetic
Wood - chemistry - genetics
Abstract
Genomic selection (GS) can increase genetic gain by reducing the length of breeding cycle in forest trees. Here we genotyped 1370 control-pollinated progeny trees from 128 full-sib families in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), using exome capture as genotyping platform. We used 116,765 high-quality SNPs to develop genomic prediction models for tree height and wood quality traits. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, genotype-by-environment interaction (G?×?E), genetic composition, size of the training and validation set, relatedness, and number of SNPs on accuracy and predictive ability (PA) of GS.
Using G matrix slightly altered heritability estimates relative to pedigree-based method. GS accuracies were about 11-14% lower than those based on pedigree-based selection. The efficiency of GS per year varied from 1.71 to 1.78, compared to that of the pedigree-based model if breeding cycle length was halved using GS. Height GS accuracy decreased to more than 30% while using one site as training for GS prediction and using this model to predict the second site, indicating that G?×?E for tree height should be accommodated in model fitting. Using a half-sib family structure instead of full-sib structure led to a significant reduction in GS accuracy and PA. The full-sib family structure needed only 750 markers to reach similar accuracy and PA, as compared to 100,000 markers required for the half-sib family, indicating that maintaining the high relatedness in the model improves accuracy and PA. Using 4000-8000 markers in full-sib family structure was sufficient to obtain GS model accuracy and PA for tree height and wood quality traits, almost equivalent to that obtained with all markers.
The study indicates that GS would be efficient in reducing generation time of breeding cycle in conifer tree breeding program that requires long-term progeny testing. The sufficient number of trees within-family (16 for growth and 12 for wood quality traits) and number of SNPs (8000) are required for GS with full-sib family relationship. GS methods had little impact on GS efficiency for growth and wood quality traits. GS model should incorporate G?×?E effect when a strong G?×?E is detected.
PubMed ID
30563448 View in PubMed
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Application of synchrotron microprobe methods to solid-phase speciation of metals and metalloids in house dust.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132165
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):8233-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2011
Author
S R Walker
H E Jamieson
P E Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Queen's University , Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):8233-40
Date
Oct-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arsenates - chemistry
Canada
Dust - analysis
Humans
Lead - isolation & purification
Metalloids - isolation & purification
Metals - isolation & purification
Molecular Probe Techniques
Soil - chemistry
Solid Phase Extraction - methods
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Synchrotrons
Wood - chemistry
X-Ray Diffraction
Zinc - isolation & purification
Abstract
Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 µm spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.
PubMed ID
21842879 View in PubMed
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Biofuels and biomass-to-liquid fuels in the biorefinery: catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass using porous materials.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95483
Source
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47(48):9200-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Stöcker Michael
Author Affiliation
SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, 0314 Oslo, Norway. michael.stocker@sintef.no
Source
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47(48):9200-11
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biotechnology
Catalysis
Gasoline
Lignin - chemistry
Porosity
Wood - chemistry
Abstract
At a time when the focus is on global warming, CO(2) emission, secure energy supply, and less consumption of fossil-based fuels, the use of renewable energy resources is essential. Various biomass resources are discussed that can deliver fuels, chemicals, and energy products. The focus is on the catalytic conversion of biomass from wood. The challenges involved in the processing of lignocellulose-rich materials will be highlighted, along with the application of porous materials as catalysts for the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) fuels in biorefineries. The mechanistic understanding of the complex reactions that take place, the development of catalysts and processes, and the product spectrum that is envisaged will be discussed, along with a sustainable concept for biorefineries based on lignocellulose. Finally, the current situation with respect to upgrading of the process technology (pilot and commercial units) will be addressed.
PubMed ID
18937235 View in PubMed
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Carbon flux from decomposing wood and its dependency on temperature, wood N2 fixation rate, moisture and fungal composition in a Norway spruce forest.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300905
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2019 05; 25(5):1852-1867
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2019
Author
Katja T Rinne-Garmston
Krista Peltoniemi
Janet Chen
Mikko Peltoniemi
Hannu Fritze
Raisa Mäkipää
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2019 05; 25(5):1852-1867
Date
05-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Carbon - analysis - metabolism
Carbon Cycle
Climate change
Forests
Fungi - classification - genetics - physiology
Nitrogen - analysis - metabolism
Norway
Picea
Temperature
Wood - chemistry - metabolism - microbiology
Abstract
Globally 40-70 Pg of carbon (C) are stored in coarse woody debris on the forest floor. Climate change may reduce the function of this stock as a C sink in the future due to increasing temperature. However, current knowledge on the drivers of wood decomposition is inadequate for detailed predictions. To define the factors that control wood respiration rate of Norway spruce and to produce a model that adequately describes the decomposition process of this species as a function of time, we used an unprecedentedly diverse analytical approach, which included measurements of respiration, fungal community sequencing, N2 fixation rate, nifH copy number, 14 C-dating as well as N%, d13 C and C% values of wood. Our results suggest that climate change will accelerate C flux from deadwood in boreal conditions, due to the observed strong temperature dependency of deadwood respiration. At the research site, the annual C flux from deadwood would increase by 27% from the current 117 g C/kg wood with the projected climate warming (RCP4.5). The second most important control on respiration rate was the stage of wood decomposition; at early stages of decomposition low nitrogen content and low wood moisture limited fungal activity while reduced wood resource quality decreased the respiration rate at the final stages of decomposition. Wood decomposition process was best described by a Sigmoidal model, where after 116 years of wood decomposition mass loss of 95% was reached. Our results on deadwood decomposition are important for C budget calculations in ecosystem and climate change models. We observed for the first time that the temperature dependency of N2 fixation, which has a major role at providing N for wood-inhabiting fungi, was not constant but varied between wood density classes due to source supply and wood quality. This has significant consequences on projecting N2 fixation rates for deadwood in changing climate.
PubMed ID
30767385 View in PubMed
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Chemical methods in the development of eco-efficient wood-based pellet production and technology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95406
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2009 Sep;27(6):561-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Kuokkanen Matti
Kuokkanen Toivo
Stoor Tuomas
Niinimäki Jouko
Pohjonen Veli
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. matti.kuokkanen@oulu.fi
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2009 Sep;27(6):561-71
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bioelectric Energy Sources
Biomass
Refuse Disposal - instrumentation - methods
Wood - chemistry
Abstract
Up to 20 million tons of waste wood biomass per year is left unused in Finland, mainly in the forests during forestry operations, because supply and demand does not meet. As a consequence of high heat energy prices, the looming threat of climate change, the greenhouse effect, and due to global as well as national demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, there is currently tremendous enthusiasm in Finland to substantially increase pellet production. As part of this European objective to increase the eco- and cost-efficient utilization of bio-energy from the European forest belt, the aim of our research group is - by means of multidisciplinary research, especially through chemical methods - to promote the development of Nordic wood-based pellet production in both the qualitative and the quantitative sense. Wood-based pellets are classified as an emission-neutral fuel, which means that they are free from emission trading in the European Union. The main fields of pellet research and the chemical toolbox that has been developed for these studies, which includes a new specific staining and optical microscope method designed to determine the cross-linking of pellets in the presence of various binding compounds, are described in this paper. As model examples illustrating the benefits of this toolbox, experimental data is presented concerning Finnish wood pellets and corresponding wood-based pellets that include the use of starch-containing waste potato peel residue and commercial lignosulfonate as binding materials. The initial results concerning the use of the developed and optimized specific staining and microscopic method using starch-containing potato peel residue as binding material are presented.
PubMed ID
19470536 View in PubMed
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Climate Change Mitigation Challenge for Wood Utilization-The Case of Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283313
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 May 17;50(10):5127-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-17-2016
Author
Sampo Soimakallio
Laura Saikku
Lauri Valsta
Kim Pingoud
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 May 17;50(10):5127-34
Date
May-17-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomass
Climate change
Finland
Forests
Wood - chemistry
Abstract
The urgent need to mitigate climate change invokes both opportunities and challenges for forest biomass utilization. Fossil fuels can be substituted by using wood products in place of alternative materials and energy, but wood harvesting reduces forest carbon sink and processing of wood products requires material and energy inputs. We assessed the extended life cycle carbon emissions considering substitution impacts for various wood utilization scenarios over 100 years from 2010 onward for Finland. The scenarios were based on various but constant wood utilization structures reflecting current and anticipated mix of wood utilization activities. We applied stochastic simulation to deal with the uncertainty in a number of input variables required. According to our analysis, the wood utilization decrease net carbon emissions with a probability lower than 40% for each of the studied scenarios. Furthermore, large emission reductions were exceptionally unlikely. The uncertainty of the results were influenced clearly the most by the reduction in the forest carbon sink. There is a significant trade-off between avoiding emissions through fossil fuel substitution and reduction in forest carbon sink due to wood harvesting. This creates a major challenge for forest management practices and wood utilization activities in responding to ambitious climate change mitigation targets.
PubMed ID
27074531 View in PubMed
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Developing a monitoring method facilitating continual improvements in the sorting of waste at recycling centres.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98882
Source
Waste Manag. 2010 Jan;30(1):32-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Joakim Krook
Mats Eklund
Author Affiliation
Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. joakim.krook@liu.se
Source
Waste Manag. 2010 Jan;30(1):32-40
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aluminum - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Environmental monitoring
Hazardous Waste
Industry
Program Development
Refuse Disposal - methods
Sweden
Wood - chemistry
Abstract
Beneficial use of waste relies on efficient systems for collection and separation. In Sweden, a bring system involving recycling centres for collection of bulky, electr(on)ic and hazardous waste has been introduced. A significant share of this waste is incorrectly sorted, causing downstream environmental implications. At present, however, there is a lack of affordable and accurate monitoring methods for providing the recycling centres with the necessary facts for improving the sorting of waste. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the usability of a simplified and potentially more suitable waste monitoring method for recycling centres. This method is based on standardised observations where the occurrence of incorrect sorting is monitored by taking digital pictures of the waste which then are analysed according to certain guidelines. The results show that the developed monitoring method could offer a resource-efficient and useful tool for proactive quality work at recycling centres, involving continuous efforts in developing and evaluating measures for improved sorting of waste. More research is however needed in order to determine to what extent the obtained results from the monitoring method are reliable.
PubMed ID
19767191 View in PubMed
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Economic impact of NMMO pretreatment on ethanol and biogas production from pinewood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263811
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:320254
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Marzieh Shafiei
Keikhosro Karimi
Hamid Zilouei
Mohammad J Taherzadeh
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:320254
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biofuels - economics
Biotechnology - economics - methods
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cyclic N-Oxides - pharmacology
Distillation
Ethanol - economics
Gasoline - economics
Hot Temperature
Methane - analysis
Morpholines - pharmacology
Pinus - chemistry - drug effects
Power Plants
Steam
Sweden
Taxes
Wood - chemistry - drug effects
Abstract
Processes for ethanol and biogas (scenario 1) and biomethane (scenario 2) production from pinewood improved by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment were developed and simulated by Aspen plus. These processes were compared with two processes using steam explosion instead of NMMO pretreatment ethanol (scenario 3) and biomethane (scenario 4) production, and the economies of all processes were evaluated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Gasoline equivalent prices of the products including 25% value added tax (VAT) and selling and distribution expenses for scenarios 1 to 4 were, respectively, 1.40, 1.20, 1.24, and 1.04 €/l, which are lower than gasoline price. The profitability indexes for scenarios 1 to 4 were 1.14, 0.93, 1.16, and 0.96, respectively. Despite the lower manufacturing costs of biomethane, the profitability indexes of these processes were lower than those of the bioethanol processes, because of higher capital requirements. The results showed that taxing rule is an effective parameter on the economy of the biofuels. The gasoline equivalent prices of the biofuels were 15-37% lower than gasoline; however, 37% of the gasoline price contributes to energy and carbon dioxide tax which are not included in the prices of biofuels based on the Swedish taxation rules.
Notes
Cites: Bioresour Technol. 2010 Jul;101(13):4914-819775889
Cites: Bioresour Technol. 2011 Sep;102(17):7879-8621684155
Cites: Carbohydr Polym. 2013 Jul 25;96(2):440-923768585
Cites: Bioresour Technol. 2013 Nov;148:53-6024035891
Cites: Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:46937825162014
PubMed ID
25276777 View in PubMed
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Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82694
Source
Bioresour Technol. 2007 Jan;98(2):302-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
van Beek Teris A
Kuster Bram
Claassen Frank W
Tienvieri Taisto
Bertaud Frédérique
Lenon Gilles
Petit-Conil Michel
Sierra-Alvarez Reyes
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Natural Products Chemistry Group, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands. teris.vanbeek@wur.nl
Source
Bioresour Technol. 2007 Jan;98(2):302-11
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Basidiomycota - metabolism
Biodegradation, Environmental
Industrial Waste - analysis
Paper - standards
Picea
Resins, Plant - analysis - metabolism
Time Factors
Wood - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal treatment conditions were compared. A 4-week fungal treatment reduced the concentration of resin acids and triglycerides by 40% and 100%, respectively, but neither lowered the energy requirements of the TMP process nor significantly affected the morphological fiber characteristics and the physical pulp properties. The pre-treatment led to slightly poorer optical properties. The Trametes versicolor fungal treatment contributed to a less toxic effluent and improved the biodegradability. A treatment of 2-3 weeks appears optimal.
PubMed ID
16517156 View in PubMed
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Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90160
Source
Indoor Air. 2009 Feb;19(1):45-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2009
Author
Kirkeskov L.
Witterseh T.
Funch L W
Kristiansen E.
Mølhave L.
Hansen M K
Knudsen B B
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Viborg Hospital, Resenvej 25, Skive, Denmark. lilli.kirkeskov.jensen@sygehusviborg.dk
Source
Indoor Air. 2009 Feb;19(1):45-57
Date
Feb-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Humans
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Saliva, Artificial - chemistry
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis - toxicity
Wood - chemistry
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the impact of the emissions of selected products of exotic wood on health. Ten products were screened for chemical compounds, and five of the most used products which emitted more than 800 microg/kg were selected for further quantitative analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only took place to a very limited extent. None of the selected products, under the chosen rating system, is likely to cause adverse health effects. Products with surface treatment might pose a problem if used as kitchen utensils, as children's toys, or when they are in close contact with the skin for a long time. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors investigated the chemical emissions from selected products from exotic wood by climate chamber measurement. Quantitative chemical analyses of emissions from the five most used exotic products in Denmark were performed, and all chemical compounds found were evaluated toxicologically. Emission from the evaluated exotic wood was very limited. None of the products is likely, under our exposure conditions, to cause health problems in relation to indoor air.
PubMed ID
19191927 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.