During the three-year period 1987-1989, 80 persons were registered with lesions following accidents with chain saws. The information in the casualty department records was supplemented by an interview questionnaire. Sale of chain saws increased from the middle of the nineteen eighties although no appreciable increase in the number of accidents was registered. One of the reasons for this may be the legislation concerning safety equipment which was introduced in the middle of the nineteen eighties. Further efforts are still required to reduce the number of accidents. On the basis of the results of the investigation, the following suggestions are made: 1. Written information about personal protective equipment should be issued to every purchaser of a chain saw. 2. An informative campaign about the correct use of the chain saw and the personal protective equipment. 3. Compulsory issue of personal protective equipment in connection with hire of a chain saw. 4. Safety gloves should be included in the safety requirements.
Genomic selection (GS) can increase genetic gain by reducing the length of breeding cycle in forest trees. Here we genotyped 1370 control-pollinated progeny trees from 128 full-sib families in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), using exome capture as genotyping platform. We used 116,765 high-quality SNPs to develop genomic prediction models for tree height and wood quality traits. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, genotype-by-environment interaction (G?×?E), genetic composition, size of the training and validation set, relatedness, and number of SNPs on accuracy and predictive ability (PA) of GS.
Using G matrix slightly altered heritability estimates relative to pedigree-based method. GS accuracies were about 11-14% lower than those based on pedigree-based selection. The efficiency of GS per year varied from 1.71 to 1.78, compared to that of the pedigree-based model if breeding cycle length was halved using GS. Height GS accuracy decreased to more than 30% while using one site as training for GS prediction and using this model to predict the second site, indicating that G?×?E for tree height should be accommodated in model fitting. Using a half-sib family structure instead of full-sib structure led to a significant reduction in GS accuracy and PA. The full-sib family structure needed only 750 markers to reach similar accuracy and PA, as compared to 100,000 markers required for the half-sib family, indicating that maintaining the high relatedness in the model improves accuracy and PA. Using 4000-8000 markers in full-sib family structure was sufficient to obtain GS model accuracy and PA for tree height and wood quality traits, almost equivalent to that obtained with all markers.
The study indicates that GS would be efficient in reducing generation time of breeding cycle in conifer tree breeding program that requires long-term progeny testing. The sufficient number of trees within-family (16 for growth and 12 for wood quality traits) and number of SNPs (8000) are required for GS with full-sib family relationship. GS methods had little impact on GS efficiency for growth and wood quality traits. GS model should incorporate G?×?E effect when a strong G?×?E is detected.
It is suggested that, within the same energy level, an impulse noise is more hazardous to hearing than a permanent noise. To justify this hypothesis, a study was performed with groups of wood-cutters and shipyard workers to investigate different characteristics of noise load (noise levels, noise impulsivity from the outside and under the ear-flaps, noise emission levels with regard to the length of work and using ear-flaps), and hearing losses (both real and forecasted on the Robinson model). To avoid individual factors, a computerized assessment of 38 pairs of workers from both teams was performed (with regard to similar noise emission levels, diastolic pressures, smoking habits, their military service backgrounds as to the service in heavy artillery units, absence of otic diseases, low consumption of salicylates). The results showed that, within the same energy level, the noise in the shipyard was three times as impulsive and more otic disorders inducing than the noise in the wood-cutters' working conditions.
Although increases in inhalable particle (PM10) concentrations have been associated with acute reductions in the level of lung function and increased symptom reporting in children, including children with asthma, it is not clear whether these effects occur largely in asthmatic children, or even whether asthmatic children are more likely to experience these effects than children without asthma. To address these points, the following subgroups of children were selected from a survey population of all 2,200 elementary school children (6 to 13 yr of age) in a pulp mill community on the west coast of Vancouver Island: (1) all children with physician-diagnosed asthma (n = 75 participated), (2) all children with an exercise-induced fall in FEV1 without diagnosed asthma (n = 57), (3) all children with airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC
Wood trimmers are exposed to molds that periodically grow on timber, and may develop acute as well as chronic pulmonary function impairment. This study examined whether these acute changes in pulmonary function are predictors for a longitudinal deterioration in pulmonary function, beyond normal aging and exposure. Across-shift changes in pulmonary function, measured during a working week, were evaluated in 15 wood trimmers with a follow-up time of 27 months. Twenty-six sawmill workers, employed at the same plants as the wood trimmers, served as control subjects. The highest concentration of viable mold spores for the wood trimmers was 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu)/m3, i.e., several times higher than the corresponding value for the sawmill workers. At the follow-up, wood trimmers had a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) on average, after adjustment for age and height, compared to the sawmill workers. In addition, a correlation was found between the across-week change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the decline in FEV1 between the first and the second occasion, after adjusting for normal aging in nonsmoking wood trimmers (r2 = 84%, p
To identify and describe work related serious injuries among sawmill workers in British Columbia, Canada using hospital discharge records, and compare the agreement and capturing patterns of the work related indicators available in the hospital discharge records.
Hospital discharge records were extracted from 1989 to 1998 for a cohort of sawmill workers. Work related injuries were identified from these records using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) external cause of injury codes, which have a fifth digit, and sometimes a fourth digit, indicating place of occurrence, and the responsibility of payment schedule, which identifies workers' compensation as being responsible for payment.
The most frequent causes of work related hospitalisations were falls, machinery related, overexertion, struck against, cutting or piercing, and struck by falling objects. Almost all cases of machinery related, struck by falling object, and caught in or between injuries were found to be work related. Overall, there was good agreement between the two indicators (ICD-9 code and payment schedule) for identifying work relatedness of injury hospitalisations (kappa = 0.75, p
Cites: Med Care. 1998 Sep;36(9):1324-369749656
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):270-39735524
Noise exposure in the sawmill industry is an area of concern. This study documents the level of noise exposure in nine sawmills in the province of Alberta, Canada.
Personal noise monitoring data were collected in nine Alberta sawmills, in winter and in summer (n = 213). Exposures were considered in light of an estimated "real world" noise reduction rating (NRR) calculation assuming use of conventional hearing protection. Limited comparisons were made with spot area monitoring data.
Only 10% of the personal monitoring measurements were below the Alberta 8-hr exposure limit of 85 dBA. Twenty-seven percent of the personal monitoring measurements were 95 dBA or higher. Worker enclosures played a large role in reducing noise exposure. There were no significant differences between seasons in noise category distributions (P = 0.61). The planermen and planer infeed operators had the highest percentage of personal monitoring measurements 95 dBA or higher (62% and 82%, respectively).
Based on a conservative formula, a risk of excess noise exposure could exist even when wearing required hearing protection due to very high noise levels found in planing operations in sawmills.
We analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 6 medicinal wood-destroying mushrooms (Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Trametes versicolor, Trichaptum biforme, Inonotus obliquus, and Coniophora puteana) that are common in deciduous and mixed coniferous forests in Central Russia. Morphological identification of strains collected from the wild was confirmed based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogenetic analysis. We observed cytotoxic and cell growth-inhibitory effects of hot water extracts from mycelial biomass of 5 species-T. versicolor, C. puteana, F. fomentarius, F. pinicola, and I. obliquus-on leukemia cell lines (Jukart, K562, and THP-1); the effective extract concentrations were mostly less than 50 µg · mL-1. However, we observed no antiproliferative activity of dry biomass from methanol-chloroform (1:1) extracts of C. puteana and F. fomentarius. A chemosensitivity assay showed that the most effective polypore mushroom extract was the methanol extract of T. versicolor (strain It-1), which inhibited the growth of 6 various solid tumors (A-549 and SWi573 [lung], HBL-100 and T-47D [breast], HeLa [cervix], and WiDr [colon]) at concentrations below 45 µg · mL-1, with a concentration as low as 0.7-3.6 µg · mL-1 causing 50% reduction in the proliferation of cancer cells in lung and cervix tumors. Methanol extracts of F. pinicola and I. obliquus were less effective, with proliferation-inhibiting capacities at concentrations below 70 and 200 µg · mL-1, respectively. Thus, T. versicolor is a prospective candidate in the search for and production of new antiproliferative chemical compounds.
A 36-year-old aboriginal female presented following an assault with a wooden fence paling. Examination revealed a wooden object protruding lateral to the left eyebrow. CT scan showed a blow-in fracture of lateral orbital wall and a hypodense foreign body causing indentation of the globe and stretching of the optic nerve. The case was managed successfully with complete recovery of the visual acuity on day 1 post-surgery. This case highlights the importance of prompt removal of large lateral wooden intraorbital foreign body to achieve an excellent visual outcome.