Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ? 5.2?kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ? 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ? 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ? 19.8, B = 47.6 ? 15.4, C = 48.4 ? 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ? 18.2) (p
To determine whether there is a causal effect of oral contraceptive (OC) treatment on general well-being and depressed mood in healthy women.
Double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial.
Three hundred and forty healthy women aged 18-35 years randomized to treatment, of whom 332 completed the data collection at follow-up evaluation.
A combined OC (150 µg levonorgestrel and 30 µg ethinylestradiol) or placebo for 3 months of treatment.
Primary outcome measures: global score of Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); secondary outcome measures: six separate dimensions of the PGWBI.
The OC treatment statistically significantly decreased general well-being compared with placebo -4.12 (95% CI, -7.18 to -1.06). Furthermore, OC decreased the following PGWBI dimensions compared with placebo: positive well-being -3.90 (95% CI, -7.78 to -0.01), self-control -6.63 (95% CI, -11.20 to -2.06), and vitality -6.84 (95% CI, -10.80 to -2.88). The effect of OC on depressive symptoms and on the PGWBI dimension depressed mood were not statistically significant.
This study demonstrates a statistically significant reduction in general well-being by a first-choice OC in comparison with placebo in healthy women. We found no statistically significant effects on depressive symptoms. A reduction in general well-being should be of clinical importance.
Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global.
To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia.
In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis.
Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance.
IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
*Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup †Department of Gynecology, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen ‡Danish Pain Research Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus §Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects.
Nearly all Danish women (n=13,420) with a hysterectomy on benign indication between 2004 and 2006 were included in a registry-based follow-up study. Information on prescription analgesic purchase was from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Factors associated with a purchase and associations between socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed.
Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight
Lifetime number of years of menstruation (LNYM) reflects a woman's cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogen and can be used as a measure of the combined effect of reproductive factors related to endometrial cancer (EC) risk.
We aimed to study the association between LNYM and EC risk among postmenopausal women and calculate the population attributable fraction of EC for different LNYM categories. Our study sample consisted of 117 589 women from the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. All women were aged 30-70 years at enrollment and completed a baseline questionnaire between 1991 and 2006. Women were followed up for EC to December 2014 through linkages to national registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for potential confounders.
In all, 720 women developed EC. We found a statistically significant, positive dose-response relationship between LNYM and EC, with a 9.1% higher risk for each additional year of LNYM (P for trend
Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women.
By cross-linkage of nationwide registers of childbirth and hospitalization, we identified 271 203 women without prior AF who gave birth in Denmark between 2004 and 2009. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was examined as a risk factor for AF using proportional hazard models. Mean age was 30.6 years (4.7 SD) and median follow-up was 4.6 years (interquartile range 2.9-5.8). During the follow-up, 110 women were hospitalized with first-time AF; very few individuals had known risk factors for AF. Overall incidence rate of AF was 9.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.7-11.2] per 100 000 person-years. According to BMI, the incidence rate of AF per 100 000 person-years was 7.4 (5.6-9.7) in normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9), 8.5 (5.5-13.1) in overweight (BMI: 25-29.9), 15.8 (9.3-26.7) in obese (BMI: 30-35), and 27.3 (15.5-48.1) in very obese (BMI >35) individuals. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, hyperthyroidism, and previous use of beta-blockers revealed a hazard ratio of 2.04 (95% CI: 1.13-3.69) in the obese and 3.50 (1.86-6.58) in the very obese individuals compared with normal weight.
Obesity is a risk factor for AF among young and essentially healthy fertile women despite the low incidence of AF. These results may have implications for prevention of AF.
We explored cultural-level variables and their associations with missing data in a group of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Elderly hypertensive women (N = 105) completed a health survey. Prevalence of missing data and z scores were calculated to determine which survey items and measures were more likely to have missing data. Hierarchical linear regressions were performed to test whether cultural variables predicted the rate of missing data beyond individual variables. Culture variables associated with survey nonresponse and missing data were related to depression, anxiety, medication beliefs and practices, attitudes toward physicians, and cultural and behavioral identity. An interpretation of the patterns of missing data and strategies to reduce the likelihood of missing data in this population are discussed. Cultural norms likely influence patients' orientations toward their health care providers. Providers would do well to normalize difficulties with medical adherence and encourage patients to ask questions about such directives. We recommend that researchers consider the cultural appropriateness of survey items and consider alternative methods (i.e., qualitative designs) for culturally sensitive topics such as mental health and sexuality.
Background. The objective was to examine the association between prepregnancy physical exercise and offspring birth weight and to assess the combined association of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and physical exercise on birth weight. Methods. The study included 2,026 women aged 20-39 years participating in the Norwegian HUNT study and linked with the Medical Birth Registry. We calculated mean differences in birth weight and odds ratios (ORs) for a macrosomic infant (i.e., birth weight >4000?g) using linear and logistic regression analysis. Results. There was no clear association between leisure time physical exercise and mean birth weight. Women who reported no exercise had reduced risk of a macrosomic infant (OR, 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-0.9) compared to women with a high exercise level. Overweight (BMI = 25.0?kg/m(2)) was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-2.9) for a macrosomic infant among women who reported low exercise levels, whereas the OR was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.8-1.8) among women with higher exercise levels. Conclusion. There was some evidence that women who reported no exercise before pregnancy had lower risk for a macrosomic infant than women who exercised. Pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with birth weight and risk of macrosomia but only among the least active women.
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To determine incidence and remission of UI as well as changes in UI prevalence in the Norwegian EPINCONT surveys.
The EPINCONT surveys were conducted in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, as part of two large cross-sectional health surveys (HUNT2 and HUNT3) in 1995 - 1997 (EPINCONT1 (E1)), and 2006 - 2008 (EPINCONT2 (E2)). EPINCONT collected information about prevalence of UI, as well as information about type and severity of UI.
A 16% relative increase in UI prevalence was found in 11 years. The women who answered E2 were significantly older, had a higher BMI and higher prevalence of diseases such as asthma, diabetes and angina compared with the women who answered E1.
Crude UI prevalence increased between the studies. Changes in known risk factors for UI such as age, BMI, weight and parity could explain some of the relative increase in prevalence, and were also found to be associated with either incidence of UI, remission of UI or both.