In Sweden, alcohol abstention has increased over the last 20 years and consumption has recently decreased after a peak in 2004. To understand the dynamics of these trends the present study aims at estimating age, period and cohort (APC) effects on trends in alcohol use prevalence as well as overall and beverage-specific volume of drinking over the last three decades.
APC analysis of seven cross-sectional surveys from 1979 to 2011 was conducted using cross-classified random effects models (CCREMs) by gender. The nationally representative samples comprised 77,598 respondents aged 16-80 years. Outcome measures were 30-day prevalence of alcohol use and overall as well as beverage-specific alcohol volume.
Trends in prevalence, overall and beverage-specific volume were significantly affected by APC. The period effects of prevalence and overall volume show a small decline after an increase up to the year 2005. Mean beer and wine volume levelled off after a peak in 2005 and volume of spirits drinking decreased constantly. Predicted alcohol prevalence rates in male cohorts (1945-1985) remained generally at the same level, while they declined in post-World War II female generations. Results point to high overall and beverage-specific consumption among cohorts born in the 1940s, 1950s and 1980s.
High consuming cohorts of the 1940-1950s were key in rising consumption up to 2005. Progression through the life course of these cohorts, a decrease in prevalence and drinking volume in successive cohorts seem to have contributed to the recent downward trend in alcohol use in Sweden.
The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer was examined in a population-based case-control study performed in Stockholm in 1986-88. The study included 352 cases of colon cancer, 217 cases of rectal cancer, and 512 controls. Relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated for total alcohol intake and for different alcoholic beverages. Total alcohol intake (> or = 30 g 100% ethanol per day) was not associated with colon cancer (relative risk = 0.9, confidence intervals = 0.4-1.8) or rectal cancer (1.0, 0.4-2.1). There was no evidence supporting beverage specificity (for colorectal cancer and > or = 10 g 100% ethanol per day: beer 1.1, 0.6-2.0, wine 1.0, 0.4-2.7, spirits 1.0, 0.6-1.6). The associations did not vary according to gender or site within the large bowel. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and gender (when appropriate). Further adjustments for diet, body mass or physical activity had little or no influence on the results. The present study does not support the hypothesis that alcohol plays an important role in the aetiology of cancer of the colon and rectum in a population with a relatively low alcohol intake.
To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability.
Prospective cohort study.
Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016.
6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment.
Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and =14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women).
4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (=3 servings), beer (=3 servings), or spirits (=2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window.
Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of consumption of beer and wine.
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To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists.
A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-95 years who were interviewed about alcohol drinking habits and underwent a clinical oral and dental examination. Multiple regression analyses were applied for studying the association between total weekly alcohol consumption, beverage-specific alcohol consumption, beverage preference (defined as the highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (= 20 versus >20 remaining teeth).
The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.76] in women drinking 1-14 drinks per week and 0.34 (95 percent CI 0.16-0.74) in women with an intake of more than 14 drinks per week compared with abstainers. Similar relations could also be obtained for type-specific alcohol intake of wine and for wine and spirits preference among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences.
In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with abstainers. Among men, those who preferred beer also had a higher number of teeth.
To test the hypothesis of beverage-specific effect in Russia on the incidence rate of alcoholic psychoses (a known indicator of a population's alcohol-related problems).
Time series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA) were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages (vodka, wine, beer) and alcoholic psychoses incidence rate between 1970 and 2013.
The analysis suggests that of the three beverages vodka alone was associated with alcoholic psychoses incidence rate. The estimated effect of vodka sales on the alcohol psychoses rate is statistically significant: a 1 l per person per year increase in vodka sales would result in a 23.4% increase in the alcoholic psychoses incidence rate.
The incidence of alcoholic psychoses is more responsive to changes in vodka sales per capita than wine or beer sales.
To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer.
Cross sectional study.
Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months.
Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers.
Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.
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To describe the effects of Russian policy since 2006 affecting price and availability on the consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, with specific reference to homemade alcohol, and to investigate other factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing.
Consumption and preferred beverage data were collected from RLMS-HSE nationwide panel surveys from 1994 to 2013, with a detailed analysis of 2012 data (18,221 respondents aged 16+ years). Official statistics on manufactured alcohol sales, regional price increase and real disposable income were used.
Homemade distilled spirits (samogon) consumption decreased together with that of recorded and unrecorded manufactured spirits since 2000. The consumption of spirits was partially replaced by the consumption of beer and wine. These trends in alcohol consumption were interrupted in 2008-2013. The interruption was more likely affected by the economic crisis and recession than by the new alcohol policy. Social networks and availability of unrecorded alcohol were more important predictors of homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing than was a recorded alcohol price increase.
Homemade alcohol consumption does not replace the declining market for recorded spirits in Russia. The effects of economic and social factors on homemade alcohol consumption are greater than are the short-term effects of the new alcohol policy. The very recent (2015) reduction of the minimum unit price of vodka may be premature.
Alcohol has not been linked definitively to non-melanoma skin cancer. We examined whether alcohol intake affects the risks for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using data on 54,766 persons enrolled in the prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. Statistical analyses were based on the Cox proportional hazards model. All hazard ratios (HRs) were multivariate adjusted. Adjustment for exposure to UVR was not possible, but all analyses were adjusted for factors related to susceptibility to UVR, including sun sensitivity, degree of freckling, and number of nevi. A total of 2,409 BCC cases and 198 SCC cases were diagnosed within a median follow-up of 11.4 years. Total current alcohol intake was not associated with BCC risk, but beverage-specific analyses showed an increased BCC risk associated with intake of wine (HR=1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.08, current average alcohol intake, per 10 g per day) and spirits (HR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.21) and a decreased risk with beer (HR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.00). No convincing associations were found between total alcohol intake and risk for SCC, perhaps because of the limited number of cases. Our findings indicate that alcohol intake may increase the risk for BCC, but the relations seemed to depend on beverage type.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of socio-economic status on the relationship between type of alcohol and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A prospective population study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 14,223 men and women participated in the first examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined after controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association between type of beverage and mortality was noticed to differ according to socio-economic level, especially where the apparent protective effect of wine consumption tended to be strongest in the lower income and educational groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds the specific effects of beer, wine or spirits to moderately diverge in the socio-economic groups. Future studies addressing the association between the type of beverage and mortality may need to more thoroughly take socio-economic factors into account.
The aim of this study was to compare the quantities of alcohol and types of alcoholic beverages consumed, and the timing of consumption, in centres participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). These centres, in 10 European countries, are characterised by widely differing drinking habits and frequencies of alcohol-related diseases.
We collected a single standardised 24-hour dietary recall per subject from a random sample of the EPIC cohort (36 900 persons initially and 35 955 after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age). This provided detailed information on the distribution of alcohol consumption during the day in relation to main meals, and was used to determine weekly consumption patterns. The crude and adjusted (by age, day of week and season) means of total ethanol consumption and consumption according to type of beverage were stratified by centre and sex.
Sex was a strong determinant of drinking patterns in all 10 countries. The highest total alcohol consumption was observed in the Spanish centres (San Sebastian, 41.4 g day-1) for men and in Danish centres (Copenhagen, 20.9 g day-1) for women. The lowest total alcohol intake was in the Swedish centres (Umeå, 10.2 g day-1) in men and in Greek women (3.4 g day-1). Among men, the main contributor to total alcohol intake was wine in Mediterranean countries and beer in the Dutch, German, Swedish and Danish centres. In most centres, the main source of alcohol for women was wine except for Murcia (Spain), where it was beer. Alcohol consumption, particularly by women, increased markedly during the weekend in nearly all centres. The German, Dutch, UK (general population) and Danish centres were characterised by the highest percentages of alcohol consumption outside mealtimes.
The large variation in drinking patterns among the EPIC centres provides an opportunity to better understand the relationship between alcohol and alcohol-related diseases.